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References

Dubois, D. L., Portillo, N., Rhode, J. E., Silverthorn, N., Valentine, J. C. (2011). How effective are mentoring programs for youth? A systematic assessment of the evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 12(2), 57-91.

Egley, A., & Howell, J. C. (2011). Highlights of the 2009 National Youth Gang Survey. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/233581.pdf (PDF, 4 pages)

Egley, A., & Howell, J. C. (2012). Highlights of the 2010 National Youth Gang Survey. Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov/pubs/237542.pdf (PDF, 4 pages)

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). 2011 National Gang Threat Assessment: Emerging trends. National Gang Intelligence Center. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/2011-national-gang-threat-assessment/2011-national-gang-threat-assessment-emerging-trends

Fight Crime: Invest in Kids. (2004). Caught in the Crossfire: Arresting Gang Violence by Investing in Kids. Washington, DC: Fight Crime: Invest in Kids.

Hawkins, D. J., Herrenkohl, T. I., Farrington, D. P., Brewer, D., Catalano, R. F., Harachi, T. W. , & Cothern, L. (2000). Predictors of youth violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/179065.pdf (PDF, 12 pages)

Hill, K. G., Howell, J. C., Hawkins, J. D., & Battin-Pearson, S. R. (1999). Childhood Risk Factors for Adolescent Gang Membership: Results From the Seattle Social Development Project. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36(3), 300–322.

Howell, J. C. (1994). Gangs. Fact sheet #12. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Howell, J. C. (1998). Guide for implementing the Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Howell, J. C. (2006). The Impact of Gangs on Communities. OJJDP NYGC Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Content/Documents/Impact-of-Gangs-on-Communities.pdf (PDF, 9 pages)

Howell, J. C. (2007). Menacing or mimicking?: Realities of youth gangs. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 58(2), 39-50. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Content/Documents/Menacing-or-Mimicking.pdf (PDF, 12 pages)

Jekielek, S., Moore K. A., & Hair, E. C. (2002). Mentoring programs and youth development: A synthesis. Washington, DC: Child Trends. Retrieved from http://www.mentorwalk.org/documents/mentoring-synthesis.pdf (PDF, 68 Pages)

Krohn, M. D., Ward, T. P., Thornberry, A. J., & Lizotte, R. C. (2011). The cascading effects of adolescent gang involvement across the life course. American Society of Criminology, 49(4), 991–1028.

McDaniel, D. D. (2012). Risk and protective factors associated with gang affiliation among high-risk youth: A public health approach. Injury Prevention. Retrieved from http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/early/2012/01/04/injuryprev-2011-040083.full

Moore, J. & Hagedorn, J.(2001). Female Gangs: A Focus on Research. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/186159.pdf (PDF, 12 pages)

National Gang Center. (2012). National Youth Gang Survey Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Survey-Analysis

National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention. (2011). National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention Strategic Plan. Retrieved from http://youth.gov/docs/Forum_Strategic_Plan_FINAL_10.27.11.pdf (PDF, 15 pages)

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2009). OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model: A guide to assessing your community’s youth gang problem. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Content/Documents/Assessment-Guide/Assessment-Guide.pdf (PDF, 139 pages)   

Thornberry, T. P., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., Smith, C. A., & Tobin, K. (2003). Gangs and delinquency in developmental perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 

Zahn, M. A., Agnew, R., Fishbein, D., Miller, S., Winn, D. M., Dakoff, G., Kruttschnitt, C., Giordano, P., Gottfredson, D. C., Payne, A. A., Feld, B. C., & Chesney-Lind, M. (2010). Causes and correlates of girls’ delinquency. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/226358.pdf (PDF, 20 pages)

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