The DUII (Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants) Intensive Supervision Program (DISP) in Multnomah County, Oregon, is a comprehensive 3-year program that includes swift sanctions, intensive probation, close monitoring, and mandatory treatment for repeat impaired-driving offenders. Its main goal is to change offenders’ thinking about the use of alcohol and drugs, to initiate behavioral changes that reduce recidivism, enhance public safety, and increase offenders’ quality of life.
Most repeat DUI offenders adjudicated in the Multnomah County Circuit Court are given the chance to enroll voluntarily in DISP. To be eligible, offenders must have been convicted of DUI at least once in the past. Although participation in DISP is voluntary, once an offender enters the program he or she is required to complete it or face probation revocation and increased jail sanctions.
An incentive for participating in DISP is reduced jail time and suspension of the fine associated with the DUI conviction. Other court costs, supervision costs, and restitution must be paid by the offender before completion. Misdemeanor offenders spend only 2 days in jail when they begin the program. Felony offenders face more jail time upon conviction; this is subject to mandatory minimum laws and the discretion of the judge. DISP participants do not serve additional jail time unless they violate the conditions of probation. DISP participants are also subject to a wide spectrum of license sanctions. There is a 1- to 3-year suspension of driver’s licenses for one or two prior convictions and a lifetime revocation of driving privileges for all Oregon drivers convicted of three or more DUIs. Although Oregon requires Ignition Interlock Devices (IIDs) for drivers after DUI convictions, DISP often requires more mandatory IID time.
In addition to the initial short jail sentence and driver’s license sanction, intervention components of DISP include electronic alcohol monitoring for no fewer than 90 days, random urinalysis, sale of all vehicles, mandated treatment for no less than 1 year, attendance at self-help groups (Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous), and fulltime employment or school attendance. These requirements, which are conditions of probation, are monitored through regular court appearances and through frequent follow-up visits with a case manager and probation officer.
Participants are required to meet no less than monthly with their case managers, at which time they must provide documentation of work, Alcoholics Anonymous meeting attendance, treatment attendance, and payment of all fees, fines, and assessments. Case managers also ask participants about the last time they drank alcohol, used drugs, or drove a vehicle. Active engagement in treatment, self-help groups, and sober community activities is required and verified by the case manager. If participants commit a violation and self-report before they are caught, the sanctions will not include additional jail time. DISP participants must also see the judge at 90 days and again before they are transferred to a less-intensive probation.
Before transfer, participants must complete and pass a polygraph test, during which they are asked again about the last time they drank alcohol, used drugs, or drove. Weekly staffing meetings are held to review the docket, educate staff, review policies, and problem-solve cases. These meetings are attended by judges, case managers, a program director, treatment counselors, deputy district attorneys, and defense attorneys. Moving to a new program phase, program completion and successful termination are celebrated at twice-yearly ceremonies.
18 to 100
Lapham and colleagues (2006) found statistically significant differences between the treatment group that participated in the Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants (DUII) Intensive Supervision Program (DISP) and the comparison group that did not participate in the program across all counties.
The various analyses completed on the outcome data showed that recidivism of the DISP participants was significantly lower than for the comparison group. DISP participants had a 9.8 percent recidivism rate, while the comparison group had an 18.3 percent recidivism rate. DISP participation is associated with a 48 percent reduction in rearrests for impaired driving.
The analyses also found that there was a statistically significant effect of DISP participation on recidivism of driving with a revoked or suspended license (DWR/DWS). Fewer than 15.0 percent of DISP participants had a subsequent arrest that resulted in conviction for DWR/DWS, compared with 27.2 percent of the comparison group. Participating in DISP was associated with a 54.0 percent reduction in rearrests for driving with a revoked or suspended license.
Any Other Traffic Violation
There was also a statistically significant difference between DISP participants and the comparison group when examining conviction rates for any other traffic offense. Twenty-eight percent of DISP participants had an arrest for a traffic violation that led to a conviction, compared with 38.4 percent of the comparison group. Enrolling in DISP was associated with a 39.0 percent decrease in all other traffic convictions.