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  1. Success for All (SFA)

Success for All (SFA)

Program Goals/Target Population
Success for All (SFA) is a schoolwide, intensive educational intervention to detect and resolve literacy problems for school children in preschool through sixth grade, mostly in high-poverty schools.

Program Components
The program promotes prevention of learning deficits and early intervention to address any deficiencies that emerge. SFA has somewhat different components, depending on each school’s needs and available resources, but there is a common set of core elements to SFA. These main components include the following:

The schoolwide reading curriculum. The main component of SFA is implementation of the schoolwide, research-based reading curriculum in grades K–6. In kindergarten and first grade the program emphasizes language and comprehension skills, phonics, sound blending, and use of shared stories that students read to each other in pairs. In second through sixth grades, the program emphasizes writing, cooperative learning, partner reading activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension skills, and comprehension strategies such as summarization and clarification built around narrative and expository texts.

Although regular class sizes can vary, for reading classes, students are placed into groups of 15–20 at the same reading level. This means that any reading group may have students at different grade levels (for example, first, second, and third graders) if the students are at the same reading level. Regrouping classes in this way expands the amount of time teachers can spend on instruction and decreases the amount of time students engage in unsupervised activities.

Quarterly assessments and regrouping. Students in grades 1–6 are assessed quarterly to determine whether they are making adequate progress. These assessments are used to regroup students according to reading level, to develop alternative teaching strategies, to provide tutoring, or to better meet students’ needs.

Key Personnel
Reading tutors. Reading tutors are used to promote student success in reading. SFA tutors are specially trained certified teachers and paraprofessionals who work one-on-one with any students who are failing in grades 1–3. Tutorial instruction is closely coordinated with regular classroom instruction and takes place 20 minutes daily.

The Solutions Team. A Solutions Team consists of school staff such as parent liaisons, social workers, counselors, and assistant principals who work in each school to support families and their involvement in their children’s success. The Solutions Team concentrates on parent education, parent involvement, attendance, and student behavior. Teachers and tutors alert the team when students are not making adequate progress so the team can provide additional support.

A program facilitator. A program facilitator works as an onsite coach for teachers to help them implement the reading program, to manage quarterly assessments, to assist the Solutions Team, to oversee the intercommunication among all staff, and to aid all staff in the progress of all students.

Intervention ID
312
Ages

5 to 12

Rating
Effective
Outcomes

Study 1
Letter–Word Recognition
Madden and colleagues (1993) found that scores for letter–word recognition increased for Success for All (SFA) students in first, second, and third grades, compared with students in the control groups. The average effect size across schools for first grade was .38, for second grade 0.55, and for third grade 0.50. The results were statistically significant for some of the grades across the five schools.

In general, the program had a bigger effect on the lowest-achieving students than on all other students. For instance, the effect size for the lowest 25 percent of students was 0.61 in first grade, 0.68 in second grade, and 0.84 for third grade.

Word Attack
The scores for Word Attack increased for SFA students in first, second, and third grades, compared with students in the control groups. The average effect size across schools for first grade was 0.91, for second grade 0.70, and for third grade 0.71. The results were statistically significant for some of the grades across the five schools.

The program had positive effects for the lowest-achieving students on this measure. The effect size for the lowest 25 percent of students was 1.06 in first grade, 1.50 in second grade, and 1.05 for third grade.

Oral Reading
The scores for oral reading increased for SFA students in first, second, and third grades, compared with students in the control groups. The average effect size across schools for first grade was 0.23, for second grade 0.55, and for third grade 0.50. The results were statistically significant for some of the grades across the five schools.

The program had positive effects for the lowest achieving students on this measure. The effect size for the lowest 25 percent of students was 0.78 in first grade, 0.82 in second grade, and 1.04 for third grade.

Study 2
Word Attack
Borman and colleagues (2007) found that at the end of 3 years of intervention students in the SFA schools achieved significantly higher levels on this measure compared with students in the control groups. The effect size for Word Attack skills was 0.33 for treatment students receiving all 3 years of intervention, compared with control students. This finding was statistically significant. The effect for students receiving all 3 years and students who joined the sample during the intervention years was 0.36—statistically significant.

Word Identification 
At the end of 3 years of intervention, students in the SFA schools achieved significantly higher levels on this measure, compared with students in the control groups. The effect size for word identification skills was 0.22 for treatment students receiving all 3 years of intervention, compared with control students. This finding was statistically significant. The effect for students receiving all 3 years and students who joined the sample during the intervention years was 0.24—also statistically significant.

Passage Comprehension
At the end of 3 years of intervention, students in the SFA schools achieved significantly higher levels on this measure, compared with students in the control groups. The effect size for word identification skills was 0.21 for treatment students receiving all 3 years of intervention, compared with control students. This finding was statistically significant. The effect for students receiving all 3 years and students who joined the sample during the intervention years was 0.21—also statistically significant.

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