Program Goal/Target Site
Target Hardening in
Police identified one public housing estate to receive enhanced security (e.g., deadbolts, solid doors) in residences. Northumbria Police surveyed 792 dwellings and provided recommendations on appropriate security devices to install. Installation of the security devices was focused on the ground floor, where most burglars entered homes. The aim was to secure all ground-floor points of entry so that burglars could not enter. By March 31, 1980, 82 percent of the dwellings were fitted; 94 percent were fitted by February 1981.
With the target hardening intervention in Northumbria, England, Allatt (1984) found that burglary increased in the treatment area, but at a smaller rate (an increase of 9 percent in year 1 and an increase of 37 percent in year 2 in the treatment area) than in the control estate (an increase of 77 percent in year 1 and 89 percent in year 2 in the control area) and in the “displacement” buffer areas (an increase of 86 percent in year 1 and 119 percent in year 2 for Displacement Area A, and an increase of 98 percent in year 1 and 56 percent in year 2 for Displacement Area B). No analysis of statistical significance was presented by the author.
Recorded crime data showed an increase from 4 to 25 attempts on the treatment estate and a drop from 8 to 4 attempts on the control estates. In contrast, the survey data showed a decline from 76 to 48 attempts in the treatment area and a rise from 17 to 30 attempts for the control area.
There was some evidence of displacement to the buffer areas.
There was some evidence of target displacement to some other types of crime, particularly theft of vehicle, which almost doubled from 25 to 45 cases, and burglary in other premises, which more than trebled from 8 to 27 instances.
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