Juvenile Justice

Youth M.O.V.E. National: Making a Difference through Youth-Adult Partnerships

Youth Motivating Others through Voices of Experience (M.O.V.E.) National is a youth and young-adult led national advocacy organization that wants to change the world. The organization is devoted to improving services and systems that support young people. They focus on empowering young people to partner with adults to create meaningful change in mental health, juvenile justice, education, and child welfare systems. The organization represents 77 chapters, consisting of 9,000 members across 39 states.

Suicide Prevention

Developmentally, the years between childhood and adulthood represent a critical period of transition and significant cognitive, mental, emotional, and social change. While adolescence is a time of tremendous growth and potential, navigating new milestones in preparation for adult roles involving education, employment, relationships, and living circumstances can be difficult. These transitions can lead to various mental health challenges that can be associated with increased risk for suicide.

Suicide is the second leading cause of death among youth age 15-24.1 Approximately one out of every 15 high school students reports attempting suicide each year.2 One out of every 53 high school students reports having made a suicide attempt that was serious enough to be treated by a doctor or a nurse.3 For each suicide death among young people, there may be as many as 100 to 200 suicide attempts.4 For some groups of youth—including those who are involved in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems; lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender; American Indian/Alaska Native; and military service members—the incidence of suicidal behavior is even higher.5

Despite how common suicidal thoughts and attempts (as well as mental health disorders which can be associated with increased risk for suicide) are among youth, there is a great deal known about prevention as well as caring for youth and communities after an attempt or death. Parents, guardians, family members, friends, teachers, school administrators, coaches and extracurricular activity leaders, mentors, service providers, and many others can play a role in preventing suicide and supporting youth.

Key Resources

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 800-273-TALK (8255)
hotlineThe National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is a 24-hour, toll-free, confidential suicide prevention hotline available to anyone in suicidal crisis or emotional distress. When you call 1-800-273-TALK (8255), you are connected to the nearest crisis center in a national network of more than 150 that provide crisis counseling and mental health referrals day and night. The Lifeline also provides informational materials, such as brochures, wallet cards, posters, and booklets. Prestamos servicios en español (1-888-628-9454). Translators speaking approximately 150 languages are available.

2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention: Goals and Objectives for Action (PDF, 184 pages) 
The National Strategy is a call to action from the U.S. Surgeon General and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention to guide suicide prevention in the United States. The National Strategy includes 13 goals and 60 objectives that reflect advances in suicide prevention knowledge, research, and practice, as well as broader changes in society and health care delivery.

Resources and Information on Suicide from SAMHSA
The U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) funds and supports the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline and the Suicide Prevention Resource Center. It manages the Garrett Lee Smith grant program, which funds State, Territorial, and Tribal programs to prevent suicide among youth. SAMHSA developed the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP), which reviews evidence of effectiveness for prevention programs on topics related to behavioral health, including suicide. SAMHSA also sponsors prevention campaigns and provides resources.

Injury Prevention and Control: Suicide Resources from CDC
Resources, publications and articles on suicide, prevention, and risk from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), including links to some statistical databases, including WISQARS (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System), YRBSS (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), National Violent Death Reporting System, and National Vital Statistics System.

Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts among U.S. High School Students: Trends and Associated Health-Risk Behaviors, 1991-2011
This article published in the Journal of Adolescent Health describes trends in suicidal thoughts and attempts and the types of associated health-risk behaviors among high school students.

Suicides — United States, 2005–2009
This report from the CDC provides data on suicide in the United States and differences in the characteristics of those who have died from suicide.

Suicide Information from the National Institute of Mental Health
Information on suicide prevention, treatment, and resources from the National Institute of Mental Health.

Suicide Prevention Resource Center
The Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC)—funded by SAMHSA—helps strengthen suicide prevention efforts of state, tribal, community, and campus organizations and coalitions as well as organizations that serve populations with high suicide rates. It provides technical assistance, training, resource materials and a newsletter, an online library, and customized information for professionals working to prevent suicide. SPRC also co-produces the Best Practices Registry for Suicide Prevention.

Injury Control Research Center for Suicide Prevention
The Injury Control Research Center for Suicide Prevention is funded by the CDC to promote a public health approach to suicide research and prevention. It conducts research, provides technical assistance, and organizes conference calls, webinars, and an annual Research Training Institute for those engaged in suicide-related research and working in the field of suicide prevention.

1 CDC, 2011
2 Eaton et al., 2010
3 Eaton et al., 2010
4 McIntosh, 2010
5 HHS, 2012

Violence Prevention

Youth violence is a significant problem that affects thousands of young people each day, and in turn, their families, schools, and communities.1 Youth violence and crime affect a community's economic health, as well as individuals' physical and mental health and well-being. Homicide is the third leading cause of death for youth in the United States.2 In 2016, more than 530,000 young people ages 10-24 were treated in emergency departments for injuries sustained from violence.3

Youth violence typically involves young people hurting other peers. It can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. A young person can be involved with youth violence as a victim, offender, or witness.

Youth violence is preventable. To prevent and eliminate violence and improve youth well-being, communities should employ evidence-based, comprehensive approaches that address the multiple factors that impact violence, both factors that increase risk of violence and factors that buffer against risk and promote positive youth development and well-being.

Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies that are trauma-informed are key. Many youth have experienced traumatic events, including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; family and community violence; natural disasters; and the ongoing, cumulative impact of poverty, racism, and oppression. Repeated exposure to traumatic events increases the risk of youth violence. Organizational trauma-informed care that is grounded in an understanding of the causes and consequences of trauma can promote resilience and healing, while reducing youth violence.

Prevention cannot be accomplished by one sector alone. Justice, public health, education, health care (mental, behavioral, medical), government (local, state, and federal), social services, business, housing, media, and organizations that comprise the civil society sector, such as faith-based organizations, youth-serving organizations, foundations, and other non-governmental organizations all need to play a role. In addition, the voices of children, youth, and families who are most affected by violence must be front and center. Collectively, we can prevent and eliminate violence and improve well-being.

Resources

SAMHSA’s Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach (PDF, 27 pages)
The purpose of this publication, developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, is to develop a working concept of trauma and a trauma-informed approach, and to develop a shared understanding of these concepts that would be acceptable and appropriate across an array of service systems and stakeholder groups. This framework is for the behavioral health specialty sectors, but can be adapted to other sectors such as child welfare, education, criminal and juvenile justice, primary health care, and the military.

SAMHSA-HRSA Center for Integrated Health Solutions
This webpage, focused on trauma and trauma-informed approaches, is geared towards health, behavioral health and integrated care leadership, staff, and patients/consumers. The information and resources provided can be easily adapted to other groups and settings such as schools.

Shared Framework for Reducing Youth Violence and Promoting Well Being (PDF, 15 pages)
The Shared Framework draws upon previously developed frameworks and models and incorporates the research and programmatic evidence base that the federal, state, and local partners have built over three decades across multiple disciplines. This includes key elements of current and past initiatives—the National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention, Defending Childhood, and the Community-based Violence Prevention program—and other federal youth violence work of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Administration for Children and Families, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

VetoViolence Portal
VetoViolence is CDC’s online source of free violence prevention trainings, tools, and resources.

Violence Reduction Response Center
This VRCC resource from the Bureau of Justice Assistance provides free, timely, direct access to expert staff who can connect users to the most relevant violent crime reduction training and technical assistance. Violence reduction professionals, law enforcement agencies, victims’ groups, and other practitioners in the field can use the VRRC as a one-stop shop to connect to resources that fit their unique needs.


1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2018a
2 CDC, 2018b
2 CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2018

Trafficking Prevention

Trafficking of youth is a form of modern slavery within the United States. It is a crime involving the exploitation of U.S. citizen/resident or noncitizen youth for the purpose of compelled labor or a commercial sex act through the use of force, fraud, or coercion, regardless of whether the trafficker or the victim crossed state or international borders. If a person younger than 18 is induced to perform a commercial sex act, it is a crime regardless of whether there is force, fraud, or coercion.1

Members of the youth-serving community are in a unique position to recognize children who may be on the path to becoming victimized and to report suspicions to the appropriate authorities. Once victims are identified, housing, medical and mental health, immigration, food, income, employment authorization, and legal services may be available to assist them. Federal agencies and departments are working collaboratively to raise awareness about human trafficking and the impact on victims, reduce the prevalence of human trafficking, support victims, prosecute offenders, and provide communities with the capacity to respond to the problem.

1 [U.S.C. §7102(8)]

Council of Juvenile Corrections Administrators

The Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators (CJCA) is a national non-profit organization, formed in 1994 to improve local juvenile correctional services, programs and practices so the youths within the systems succeed when they return to the community and to provide national leadership and leadership development for the individuals responsible for the systems. CJCA represents the youth correctional CEOs in 50 states, Puerto Rico and major metropolitan counties.