Violence Prevention & Victimization

FY2019 Office of Naval Research Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions (HBCU/MI) Program

The Department of Navy (DoN) Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions (HBCU/MI) Program aims to increase the quantity and quality of minority professionals in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in the defense community.

Project AWARE (Advancing Wellness and Resiliency in Education) State Education Agency Grants

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) is accepting applications for fiscal year (FY) 2019 Project AWARE (Advancing Wellness and Resilience in Education) - State Education Agency (SEA) grants (Short Title: AWARE-SEA).

AIDS Education and Training Centers – National HIV Curriculum e-Learning Platform: Technology Operations and Maintenance

This notice announces the opportunity to apply for funding under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP), AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETC) Program for the technological operations and maintenance of the National HIV Curriculum (NHC) e-Learning Platform. This project will manage the technological operation and maintenance of the NHC e-learning Platform. Further, it will maintain the platform’s capacity to support additional modules thereby broadening the subject matter content available on the existing NHC.

Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part D -- Women, Infants, Children, and Youth (WICY) Grants Supplemental Funding

This notice announces the opportunity to apply for funding under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP) Part D Women, Infants, Children, and Youth (Part D WICY or RWHAP Part D) Grants Supplemental Funding for fiscal year (FY) 2019. The purpose of this supplemental funding is to strengthen organizational capacity to respond to the changing health care landscape and increase access to high quality family-centered HIV primary health care services for low income, uninsured, and underserved WICY living with HIV.

Resource: SART Toolkit: Resources for Sexual Assault Response Teams

This updated toolkit outlines the steps involved in creating a SART, describes how to retain focus on survivors, highlights SART programs throughout the country, and includes sample resources to use when developing and evaluating a SART.

Prevention Strategies

Prevention efforts should aim to reduce factors that place youth at risk for perpetrating violence and promote factors that protect youth at risk for violence. In addition, prevention should address all types of influences on youth violence: individual, relationship, community, and society. Effective prevention strategies are necessary to promote awareness about youth violence and to foster the commitment to social change.

Youth violence prevention continues to advance rapidly. Many prevention tools have been developed and implemented; many of these prevention programs and strategies have been evaluated and found to be effective at preventing violence and related behaviors among youth. Such evidence-based programs have shown positive effects in rigorous evaluations.

Resources

A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth Violence and Associated Risk Behaviors
CDC developed this technical package to help states and communities take advantage of the best available evidence to prevent youth violence.

Collaborative Efforts Needed to Address Youth Violence
This web page from SAMHSA describes initiatives designed to promote healthy children and prevent youth violence through a collaborative approach.

CrimeSolutions.gov
The National Institute of Justice’s CrimeSolutions.gov is comprised of two components: a web-based clearinghouse of programs and practices and a process for identifying and rating those programs and practices.

Model Programs Guide
OJJDP’s Model Programs Guide contains information about evidence-based juvenile justice and youth prevention, intervention, and reentry programs. It is a resource for practitioners and communities about what works, what is promising, and what does not work in juvenile justice, delinquency prevention, and child protection and safety.

STRYVE Strategy Selector
This CDC tool is designed for any practitioner or community seeking information on how to prevent youth violence. It combines rigorous evaluation science with the flexibility required for communities to devise a tailored approach to youth violence prevention.

Risk and Protective Factors

No single factor explains why some youth perpetrate or become a victim of violence or why violence is more prevalent in some places than others. Violence results from a complex interplay of a variety of factors.

Understanding the range of factors that put youth at risk for violence or protect them from experiencing or perpetrating violence makes it possible to develop comprehensive, multilevel, evidence-basedstrategies to prevent and eliminate violence and improve overall child well-being.

Individual

Biological and personal history factors can increase the likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence. These can include physical and cognitive challenges (e.g., fetal alcohol disorders, learning disorders), impulsive or aggressive tendencies, history of trauma (including involvement with foster care and homelessness), exposure to violence, and involvement with drugs or alcohol.

Other factors can buffer young people from the risks of becoming violent, even if they have experienced the other kinds of risk factors listed above. These include academic achievement, high educational aspirations, positive social orientation, and highly developed social skills/competencies.

Relationships

The close relationships in a young person’s life can either increase or reduce the risk of experiencing violence as a victim or perpetrator. A person’s closest social circle—-peers, partners, and family members—influences their behavior and contributes to their experience. 

Risk factors at the family level include: authoritarian childrearing attitudes, low parental involvement, poor family functioning, and parental substance abuse or history of criminal involvement. Peer and social risk factors include involvement in gangs and social rejection by peers. 

Protective factors that can reduce the risk of violence include connectedness to family or other caring adults, frequent and positive shared activities with parents, positive engagement with teachers in supportive school climates, and involvement in prosocial activities.

School, Community, and Society

Other factors often overlooked are settings in which social relationships occur, such as schools, workplaces, and neighborhoods. Characteristics of these settings can increase or decrease the risk of violence. Broad societal factors can also play a role since they can create a climate in which violence is either encouraged or inhibited. 

Risk factors can include aspects of the built environment (e.g., high concentrations of poor residents, design factors, such as open and green spaces, lighting, etc.), social environment (e.g., diminished economic opportunities, low levels of community participation, socially disorganized neighborhoods), community-level trauma (e.g., historical trauma, chronic exposure to violence), other environmental factors (e.g., lead and other toxic substances and their relationship to neurological functioning and brain development), prevailing cultural and societal norms, and the interaction of youth and families with community institutions, including schools, police, courts, child welfare agencies. 

Protective factors at the community and societal level have been less studied than protective factors at the individual and relationship level. Factors that appear to buffer against the risk of violence include coordination of resources and services among community agencies, access to mental health and substance abuse services, and community support and connectedness.

Resources

Adverse Childhood Experiences
Childhood experiences, both positive and negative, have a tremendous impact on future youth violence victimization and perpetration. This CDC web page contains related information and resources.

Connecting the Dots: An Overview of the Links Among Multiple Forms of Violence
A briefing document published by CDC in 2014 to share research on the connections between different forms of violence and describe how these connections affect communities. 

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: A Technical Package for Policy, Norm, and Programmatic Activities
This technical package (PDF, 52 pages) from the CDC includes a select group of strategies based on the best available evidence to help prevent child abuse and neglect. Communities and states can use this resource as they prioritize child abuse and neglect prevention activities.

Protective Factors Against Delinquency
A literature review funded by OJJDP, published in 2015.

Risk Factors for Delinquency
A literature review funded by OJJDP, published in 2015.

Youth Violence: Risk and Protective Factors
A CDC web page that lists some of the known risk and protective factors for youth violence.

Federal Data

Thousands of people experience youth violence every day. Youth violence negatively impacts youth in all communities—urban, suburban, rural, and tribal.

  • Youth violence is common. 1 in 5 high school students reported being bullied on school property in the past year.1
  • Youth violence kills and injuries. Homicide is the third leading cause of death for young people ages 10-24. Each day, approximately 12 young people are victims of homicide and almost 1,400 are treated in emergency departments for nonfatal assault-related injuries.2
  • Youth violence is costly. Youth homicides and nonfatal physical assault-related injuries result in an estimated $18.2 billion annually in combined medical and lost productivity costs alone.ii

The impact of youth violence is not the same for all young people and communities. The rates and types of youth violence vary across communities and across subgroups of youth. These disparities can be attributed to different exposure to risk and protective factors.

  • Disproportionate burden on ethnic and racial minority youth. Homicide is the leading cause of death for African-American youth, the second leading cause of death for Hispanic youth, the third leading cause of death for American Indian/Alaska Native youth, and the fourth leading cause of death among White and Asian/Pacific Islander youth. ii
  • Different patterns for males and females. The youth homicide rate in 2016 was 6 times higher among males than females. ii The prevalence of involvement in physical fights among high school students also was approximately 1.7 times higher for male compared to female students.3 In contrast, female high school students were more likely than their male peers to report being a victim of bullying at school.iii
  • Disproportionate burden on sexual minority youth. Young people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender or are questioning their sexual identity (LGBTQ) have a heightened risk for violence. Relative to peers who do not identify as LGBTQ, these youth report experiencing higher levels of verbal and physical violence and associated physical injury across multiple studies.4

Resources

Bureau of Justice Statistics
This bureau at the U.S. Department of Justice collects, analyzes, publishes, and disseminates information on crime, criminal offenders, victims of crime, and the operation of justice systems at all levels of government.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety
The U.S. Departments of Education and Justice publish this report on school crime and student safety each year.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
NCES is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education in the U.S. and other nations. NCES fulfills a Congressional mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report complete statistics on the condition of American education; conduct and publish reports; and review and report on education activities internationally.

National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS)
NVDRS provides states and communities with a clearer understanding of violent deaths to guide local decisions about efforts to prevent violence and track progress over time. NVDRS is the only state-based surveillance (reporting) system that pools data on violent deaths from multiple sources into a usable, anonymous database.

Statistical Briefing Book
This resource enables users to access online information via OJJDP's website to learn more about juvenile crime and victimization.

Uniform Crime Reporting
The FBI collects data on crime in the United States. Each year, the FBI publishes a summary of Crime in the United States, Hate Crime Statistics, special studies, reports, and monographs.

WISQARS
CDC’s WISQARS (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System) is an interactive, online database that provides fatal and nonfatal injury, violent death, and cost of injury data from a variety of trusted sources.

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
CDC administers a nationwide survey every two years in public and private high schools so investigators can examine health-related behaviors including fighting, weapon carrying, bullying, dating violence, and sexual violence.


1 Kann et al., 2016
2 CDC, 2016
2 CDC, 2017
2 Institute of Medicine, 2011