Love Notes was designed to be delivered in a variety of settings including schools, community-based organizations, faith-based agencies, community centers, social service agencies, and workforce development programs. Love Notes was evaluated in community-based organizations.
The Dibble Institute at https://www.dibbleinstitute.org/lovenotes
The Dibble Institute
P. O. Box 7881
Berkeley, CA 94707-0881 www.DibbleInstitute.org
|Category||Component||Core Component||Component present||Notes||Lesson number(s) / activities where present|
|Content||Graduating from high school||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 1 Journal p. 1, Lesson 8 pgs. 183-190, Lesson 13 Journal pgs. 50 & 55 Success Plans|
|Content||Anatomy/physiology||No||No||Lesson 12, pgs. 323-326, video|
|Content||Identity development||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lessons 1 pgs. 10-11 and Journal pgs. 1&2. Lesson 2 & 3 - entire lesson. Journal pgs. 3 - 13, Lesson 5 Journal pgs. 15-16.|
|Content||Social support/capital||Yes||Yes (both versions)||This is especially emphasized through the Trusted Adult Connection activities of every lesson|
|Content||Social influence/actual vs. perceived social norms||Yes||Yes (current version)||Lesson 11 entire lesson|
|Content||Social competence||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lessons 9 & 10 on communication and conflict management|
|Content||Gender roles||Yes||Yes (both versions)||The entire program does not assume any particular behaviors or attitudes must be considered appropriate or acceptable based on a person's biological or perceived sex. Love Notes assumes equality, respect and dignity for all young people however they identify.||Throughout the program|
|Content||Cultural values||Optional||According to need and population served, Love Notes has been adapted with specific cultural values such as Pacific Islander, and Native American populations,||The developer has worked with organizations of specific cultures to adapt or add examples, images, media and specific cultural values and content.|
|Content||Connections with trusted adults||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Every lesson has a highly engaging Trusted Adult Connection activity.|
|Content||Conflict resolution/social problem solving||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lessons 9 and 10 in their entirety & Journal pgs.31-37. Also Lesson 5, pgs. 89-90 & Journal p.16|
|Content||Communication skills||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lessons 9 and 10 in their entirely contain a robust set of communication, self-regulation and conflict management skills.|
|Content||Child development||No||Yes (current version)||Lesson 13 pgs. 4141-416. Supplemental material (not delivered in EBP) The early years : pre-natal, attachment, attunement, early brain development, early socialization.|
|Content||Boundary setting/refusal skills||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 4 pgs. 60-70, Lesson 6 pgs. 119-120 & Journal pgs.19-20, Lesson 7 pgs. 139-140, 156-157, 158-159 & Journal pgs. 21-22 Lesson 11 pgs. 281-288 and journal pgs. 40, and especially pgs. 42-43, Lesson 12 Supplemental refusal skills and role-plays on pgs. 354-356.|
|Content||Substance use cessation||No||No|
|Content||Substance use - Other drugs||No||Yes (current version)||Marijuana & alcohol given greatest emphasis.||Lesson 12 pgs. 337-339|
|Content||Substance use - Alcohol||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Pointed out in evaluated version and strengthened in current version - especially as it relates to sexual behaviors and decision-making||Lesson 12 pgs. 337-339|
|Content||Substance use - Abstinence||No|
|Content||Brain development and substance use||No||Yes (current version)||Lesson 12 pgs. 337-339|
|Content||Vocational/skills training||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Other technical training, apprenticeships, military training are emphasized along with college||Lesson 1 initial goal setting-see Journal p. 1, Lesson 8 pgs. 183-190 and Journal pgs. 25-27, Lesson 13 Journal p. 50.|
|Content||Supplemental academic services||No|
|Content||Self-regulation||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lessons 9 pgs. 215-219 plus Journal p. 32, and Lesson 10 pgs. 243-244 and pgs. 246- 249|
|Content||Self-esteem||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 2 on understanding personality style, Lesson 3 on defining what's important to me; my expectations; Lesson 7 I can "draw or redraw the line of respect". Lesson 11 I can define a context and timing for sex that is personally meaningful to me; I can follow a pathway and sequence for success.|
|Content||Self-efficacy/empowerment||Yes||Yes (both versions)||The program is built around increasing self-efficacy and empowerment.|
|Content||Sexual health||Yes||Yes (both versions)||ALL of Lesson 11 addresses this component very robustly along with the journal pages 39-43. Lesson 7 pgs. 138-141, 146,149-150, pgs. 152-155, & Journal p. 21-22 address intimate relationships free of coercion and violence. A new addition, marked Supplemental, since not in the original study is Lesson 12, Section 12.4 (pgs. 342-354). It addresses some issues with pornography employing an interview with Billie Eilish that raise important issues about positive and pleasurable sex and well-being. .|
|Content||STIs - Treatment||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 12, pgs. 366-367|
|Content||STIs - Screening||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 12, p. 334|
|Content||STIs - Prevention||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 12, pgs.325, 332-334 & Resource 12b, Abstinence p. 335, Condoms p. 334-336. Also see questions 6 & 7 in Journal p. 41 Getting on Same Page, and see questions p. 45 in Journal Planning for Choices 366-367,|
|Content||STIs - Information||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 12, 333-336, 366-367|
|Content||Sexual risk reduction||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lessons 11,12,13.Journal pgs. 26, 41-45,52, 53. Lessons 4 on relationship pyramid, Lesson 7 on sexual assault and sex trafficking prevention, Lesson 8 on low-risk deciding approach, Lesson 13 Through the Eyes of a Child|
|Content||Sexual risk discontinuation||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 11 p. 308 & Journal p. 42. Lesson 12 p. 339 & Journal p. 44.|
|Content||Sexual risk avoidance||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 8 pgs. 171-178 on the risks of "sliding" and benefits of 'deciding". Lesson 11, pgs. 308-309 Drawing Intimacy Lines & Pacing Relationships, Lesson 12 p.335, 337, 339,|
|Content||Personal vulnerability||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11,13|
|Content||Maternal health||No||Optional||Content on maternal health during pregnancy/pre-natal, attachment, attunement, early brain development and more affecting a child. Also described in terms of IPV affecting maternal and child health (Lesson 7).||Lesson 13 pgs. 414-417. Also Resource 13F pgs. 434-436. Also Lesson 7, pgs. 147-148.|
|Content||Contraception - Condoms||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 12, manual pages 328, 335-336 and in How Do Contraceptives Work video.|
|Content||Contraception - Long-acting reversible contraceptives||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 12,pgs. 326 -327|
|Content||Contraception - Other||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 12, pgs. 324, 327-329|
|Content||Contraception - Pills, patches, rings, and shots||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Lesson 12, pgs. 326-328|
|Content||Reproduction||Yes||Yes (both versions)||Yes on how an egg is fertilized and implantation of embryo. There is not content on changes in the maternal body goes through during stages of pregnancy.||Lesson 12,pgs 323-327, video|
Love Notes aims to achieve these goals by integrating relationship skills with pregnancy prevention and workforce readiness, with practical strategies for motivating change. The model relies on:
- A realistic context for learning that incorporates language, values and scenarios that is relevant to this audience.
- An appeal to aspirations that helps youth to cultivate a personal vision for love, intimacy, and success.
- New motivations for behavioral change, such as exploring, from a child’s perspective, the impact of unplanned pregnancy and unstable relationships.
- Empowerment to achieve healthy relationships at home and at work through both knowledge and practical skills.
- Relationships Today
- Knowing Yourself
- My Expectations–My Future
- Attractions and Starting Relationships
- Principles of Smart Relationships
- Is It a Healthy Relationship?
- Dangerous Love
- Decide, Don't Slide! Pathways & Sequences Toward Success
- Communication and Healthy Relationships
- Communication Challenges and More Skills
- Let's Talk About Sex
- Let's Plan for Choices
- Through the Eyes of a Child
Intervention materials include:
- Love Notes Instructor’s Manual
- Love Notes Participant Journals (in hard copy or digital format)
- Primary Colors Personality Tool
- PowerPoint slideshow for each lesson—downloaded directly from website with purchase of the manual
A computer and projector are needed for each lesson’s PowerPoint slides. Other materials include art supplies, candies, and other readily available teaching materials.
Love Notes Participant Journals (available in hard copy of electronic form) can be purchased in bulk along with the Primary Colors Personality Tool from the Dibble website: www.dibbleinstitute.org, or call 800-695-7975.
The following fidelity aids and checklists are included with the EBP Model Manual:
- Annotated slide deck to focus the instructor on key content.
- Observational fidelity tools for coaches and evaluators
- Facilitator quality measures
- Participant reaction questionnaire
- Participant perceptions of facilitator engagement and group cohesion questionnaires
- Love Notes knowledge test
- Inventory of related scales that can assess attitudinal and behavioral outcomes regarding sex, relationship quality, communication, conflict, control, violence as well as mediators.
Training clients receive technical assistance as part of their training package. Love Notes offers 2 hours of complimentary consultation per organization that have attended a Dibble training. In addition, further TA and evaluation is available.
- Add additional content from the Love Notes Complete Instructor’s Manual based on participant need and available time.
- Include Love Notes activities for expecting and parenting teens.
- Exchange “All Falls Down” for “Toothpaste” DVDs based on participant need.
For activities that do not directly relate to Love Note’s content, organizations may:
- Change the first names in the scenarios to reflect the participants’ culture and gender.
- Add icebreakers or energizers at the start of each session or between modules if delivering during an extended period of time.
- Deliver lengthened sessions.
- Increase the number and frequency of Love Notes sessions.
- Use exercises, share facts, or make reminders about key concepts as part of booster text or sessions.
- Provide make-up sessions.
- Use modules with young adults up to age 24.
- Delivery without using the Love Notes PowerPoints and Participant Journal.
- Delivery by a facilitator who has not attended a LN-EBP Dibble Certified Training.
- Skipping content or activities from the Evidence Based Model.
All adaptation changes must be reviewed and approved in the context of maintaining fidelity to the core components.
|Citation||High-Quality Randomized Trial||Moderate-Quality Randomized Trial||Moderate-Quality Quasi-experiment||Low Study Rating||Did Not Meet Eligibility Criteria|
Cunningham et al. 2016 (Love Notes)
Barbee et al. 2016
|Citation||Setting||Majority Age Group||Majority Racial/Ethnic Group||Gender||Sample Size|
Cunningham et al. 2016 (Love Notes)
Barbee et al. 2016
|After school||14 to 17||African American or Black||Youth of any gender||933|
Cunningham et al. 2016 (Love Notes)
Barbee et al. 2016
|The program was evaluated with a clustered randomized controlled trial involving 23 community-based organizations in Louisville, KY. Youth were recruited into the study on a rolling basis in small groups. Each group was randomly assigned to one of three research conditions: a treatment group receiving the Love Notes intervention, a treatment group receiving the Reducing the Risk intervention, or a control group receiving a program on neighborhood assets and community change. Data for the study were collected before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and at three, six, 12, and 24 months after the end of the intervention. This article focused on data collected at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups.
Six months after the end of the intervention, the study found that adolescents in the Love Notes group were less likely than those in the control group to report ever having sex, having any sexual activity in the past three months, having sex without a condom in the past three months, having sex without using birth control in the past three months, and ever being pregnant. The study found no statistically significant program impacts on measures of number of sexual partners or pregnancy in the last 3 months. The study found no statistically significant program impacts on any of these outcomes for the 3- or 12-month follow-up surveys.