Sexual Health and Adolescent Risk Prevention (SHARP)

Angela D. Bryan, Ph.D.; Sarah J. Schmiege, Ph.D.; and Michelle R. Broaddus, Ph.D.
Program Summary
Sexual Health and Adolescent Risk Prevention (SHARP) is an interactive single-session STI/HIV prevention intervention. The program's overall goals are to deepen STI/HIV knowledge, improve correct condom use, reduce sexual risks and alcohol use, and set long-term goals to utilize knowledge and skills learned during the session. The session is about four hours long and organized by gender.
Intended Population
The program was designed and tested with youth ages 15 to 19 residing in temporary juvenile detention facilities.  Suggested target populations include high risk youth in clinical, in-patient, or community-based settings.
Program Setting

The program was designed for and evaluated in a juvenile detention facility.

Contact and Availability Information

Sociometrics Corporation
1580 W. El Camino Real, Suite 8
Mountain View, CA 94040
Ph: 650-949-3282

See above 
Sample of curriculum available for review prior to purchase
Adaptation guidelines or kit available
Languages available
Program Core Components
Category Component Core Component Component present Notes Lesson number(s) / activities where present
Content Anatomy/physiology No
Content Other
Content Volunteering/civic engagement No
Content Spirituality No
Content Morals/values No
Content Identity development No
Content Social support/capital No
Content Social influence/actual vs. perceived social norms No Yes (both versions)
Content Social competence No Yes (both versions)
Content Parenting skills No
Content Normative beliefs No Yes (both versions)
Content Leadership No
Content Gender roles No
Content Gender identity No
Content Cultural values No
Content Connections with trusted adults No
Content Conflict resolution/social problem solving No
Content Communication skills Yes Yes (both versions)
Content Child development No
Content Boundary setting/refusal skills Yes Yes (both versions)
Content Substance use cessation No Yes (both versions)
Content Substance use - Other drugs No Yes (both versions)
Content Substance use - Alcohol Yes Yes (both versions)
Content Substance use - Abstinence No Yes (both versions)
Content Brain development and substance use No
Content Vocational/skills training No
Content Supplemental academic services No
Content School engagement No
Content Graduating from high school No
Content College preparation No
Content Alternative schooling No
Content Self-regulation No
Content Self-esteem No
Content Self-efficacy/empowerment Yes Yes (both versions)
Content Resilience No
Content Personal vulnerability No
Content Risk of STIs and Pregnancy Yes (both versions)
Content STIs - Screening Yes Yes (both versions)
Content STIs - Prevention Yes Yes (both versions)
Content STIs - Information Yes Yes (both versions)
Content Sexual risk reduction Yes Yes (both versions)
Content Sexual risk discontinuation No
Content Sexual risk avoidance No Yes (both versions)
Content Sexual orientation No Yes (both versions) Not instruction per se, but acknowledgment and acceptance of differences in sexual orientation
Content Sexual health No Yes (both versions)
Content Contraception - Pills, patches, rings, and shots No
Content Contraception - Condoms Yes Yes (both versions)
Content Contraception - Long-acting reversible contraceptives No
Content Contraception - Other No
Content Puberty/development No
Program Objectives
The program goals of SHARP are to deepen STI/HIV knowledge, improve correct condom use, reduce sexual risks and alcohol use, and set long-term goals to utilize knowledge and skills learned during the session.
Program Content
SHARP is a single-session program. The intervention consists of the following core elements:
  • Increasing awareness and knowledge of the consequences of risky sexual and substance use practices.
  • Understanding how HIV and STIs are transmitted.
  • Identifying incorrect HIV heuristics.
  • Identifying behaviors that place people at risk for HIV/STIs.
  • Improving individual condom use self-efficacy.
  • Developing sexual risk reduction strategies.
  • Learning how to successfully negotiate condom use.
  • Developing long-term sexual risk and alcohol use reduction goals.
  • Understanding how decisions about engaging in risk behaviors today can affect life tomorrow and further down the road.
SHARP is grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, and Motivational Interviewing/Motivational Enhanced Therapy.
Program Methods
The program is delivered through Motivational Enhancement Therapy, goal setting exercises, videos, lecture, and group discussion.
Program Structure and Timeline

The program structure of SHARP includes the following:

  • SHARP is delivered in a 3.5 to 4 hour single session.
  • Groups must be separated by gender.
  • The ideal group size is 3 to 5 participants, and should not exceed 10 youth.
  • When discussing marijuana and other drugs, alcohol must also be discussed.
It is recommended that staff are familiar with Motivational Interviewing techniques.
Program Materials and Resources
Sociometrics provides a SHARP PASHA Program Package that consists of:
  • A SHARP user's guide
  • Facilitator's manual
  • Student workbooks
  • Risky Behaviors computer game
  • Alcohol use questionnaire
  • Personal feedback report & scoring card
  • CD containing both the "Your Move" and "Under the Influence" Videos. 

These materials can be found at:

Additional Needs for Implementation

The implementation of SHARP requires the following materials that are not available from the developer:

  • Penis proxy
  • TV/DVD player for viewing the videos
  • A calculator
  • Computers, ideally one computer for each 1-2 participants for the video game.  If you do not have the necessary number of computers to accommodate this, the alternative would be to use one computer and project the video game onto the wall or a screen using a LCD projector.

If the program is being implemented in a detention or other residential facility, it is recommended that program implementers check with the facility administration on banned items (e.g. pens) or any safety measures implemented on-site.

Sociometrics provides original evaluation instruments, the Prevention Minimum Evaluation Data Set (PMEDS), and a local evaluator consultant network directory. A fidelity monitoring tool is available at:
Staff Training
Training is strongly encouraged, but is not required. Training occurs over 1.5 to 2 days and content and cost varies by agency needs, location, etc. One of Dr. Bryan's original facilitators co-trains with a trainer from Sociometrics.
Technical Assistance and Ongoing Support
Telephone technical support on implementation and evaluation is available for one year.
Allowable Adaptations
Agencies are allowed to split the session up into two sessions, as long as there is no more than two days between sessions. Also, agencies can reshoot the videos using the same script to make it more contemporary or relevant to their population.


Reviewed Studies
Citation High-Quality Randomized Trial Moderate-Quality Randomized Trial Moderate-Quality Quasi-experiment Low Study Rating Did Not Meet Eligibility Criteria

Bryan et al. 2009

Schmiege et al. 2009

Study Characteristics
Citation Setting Majority Age Group Majority Racial/Ethnic Group Gender Sample Size

Bryan et al. 2009

Schmiege et al. 2009

Detention facility 14 to 17 White Youth of any gender


Study Findings

Evidence by Outcome Domain and Study

Citation Sexual Activity Number of Sexual Partners Contraceptive Use STIs or HIV Pregnancy

Bryan et al. 2009

Schmiege et al. 2009

n.a. n.a. Potentially favorable evidence n.a. n.a.
Detailed Findings
Citation Details

Bryan et al. 2009

Schmiege et al. 2009

The program was evaluated in a cluster randomized controlled trial involving adolescents from three juvenile detention facilities in Denver, CO. Small groups of adolescents were recruited on a rolling basis over a 30-month period from January 2004 to July 2006. Each group was randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) a treatment group that received the full intervention, (2) a treatment group that received only the first component of the intervention, the three-hour small-group session, or (3) a control group that received a one-hour small-group informational session on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Surveys were administered immediately before the intervention (baseline), immediately after the intervention, and at follow-ups conducted 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the program.

The study found that across the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up surveys, condom use declined among all three of the study's research groups, but the trend in the rate of decline was significantly reduced for adolescents who received the full intervention relative to those in the control group. The study also examined program impacts on measures of alcohol problems and sexual intercourse while drinking. Findings for these outcomes were not considered for the review because they fell outside the scope of the review.


Some study entries may include more than one citation because each citation examines a different follow-up period from the same study sample, or because each citation examines a different set of outcome measures on the same study sample. A blank cell indicates the study did not examine any outcome measures within the particular outcome domain or the findings for the outcome measures within that domain did not meet the review evidence standards.

Information on evidence of effectiveness is available only for studies that received a high or moderate rating. Read the description of the review process for more information on how these programs are identified.