Norweeta G. Milburn, Ph.D.
The program was designed for and evaluated in community-based organizations and homes.
Nancy Gonzalez-Caro, MPH
Evidence-Based Product Specialist
100 Enterprise Way, Suite G300
Scotts Valley, CA 95066
Ph: 800-321-4407 x237
|Category||Component||Core Component||Component present||Notes||Lesson number(s) / activities where present|
|Content||Graduating from high school||No|
|Content||Social influence/actual vs. perceived social norms||No|
|Content||Parenting skills||Yes (both versions)||All sessions are intended to strengthen family connections and build positive relationships by giving parents skills for communicating with their teen and handling conflicts|
|Content||Connections with trusted adults||Yes (both versions)||All sessions are intended to strengthen family connections and build positive relationships|
|Content||Conflict resolution/social problem solving||Yes (both versions)||Session 1, Task 9; Session 2, Task 9; Session 4, Task 5|
|Content||Boundary setting/refusal skills||No|
|Content||Substance use cessation||No|
|Content||Substance use - Other drugs||No|
|Content||Substance use - Alcohol||No|
|Content||Substance use - Abstinence||No|
|Content||Brain development and substance use||No|
|Content||Supplemental academic services||No|
|Content||Self-regulation||Yes (both versions)||Session 1, Task 8; then use of the Feeling Thermometer throughout the sessions|
|Content||Self-esteem||Yes (both versions)||Session 1, Task 7, Task 8|
|Content||Resilience||Yes (both versions)||Session 1, Task 9|
|Content||STIs - Treatment||No|
|Content||STIs - Screening||No|
|Content||STIs - Prevention||No|
|Content||STIs - Information||No|
|Content||Sexual risk reduction||Optional||A video on risks of HIV for homeless youth is assigned as homework.|
|Content||Sexual risk discontinuation||Optional||A video on risks of HIV for homeless youth is assigned as homework.|
|Content||Personal vulnerability||Yes (both versions)||Session 1 establishes positive atmosphere; participants are rewarded for sharing authentically throughout|
|Content||Contraception - Condoms||No|
|Content||Contraception - Long-acting reversible contraceptives||No|
|Content||Contraception - Other||No|
|Content||Contraception - Pills, patches, rings, and shots||No|
STRIVE is grounded in cognitive-behavioral and family systems theories and stresses the importance of establishing a positive family climate to reduce the risk of chronic homelessness and associated adolescent risk behaviors. The specific topics covered by each session are:
- Session 1: Participants are encouraged to create a positive family atmosphere and to make a commitment to the program and not running away from home. Families learn how to anticipate, identify, and plan for situations and events that may trigger the adolescent to run away.
- Session 2: Participants learn and practice problem-solving skills. Families are encouraged to develop a positive family environment by prioritizing problems and solving them as a team.
- Session 3: Participants learn how to analyze and frame problems, and how to articulate the intentions behind their behaviors. The session also provides factual information about HIV risk among runaway and homeless youth.
- Session 4: This session focuses on coping and negotiation skills. Families learn strategies to cope with stressful situations and how to negotiate solutions. They practice applying these skills to their real-world problems.
- Session 5: In this session, families apply what they have learned in prior sessions to solve an ongoing family conflict. The facilitator observes the discussion and provides feedback on the process.
- Implementation manual
- Evaluation assessments
- Monitoring tools
- Recruitment and retention materials
Milburn et al. 2012
|The program was evaluated using a randomized controlled trial involving newly homeless adolescents in Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, California. Study participants were recruited on a rolling basis over a three-year period through community-based organizations and study flyers and advertisements. About half were randomly assigned to receive the STRIVE intervention and half were assigned to a control group that received only referral services. Surveys were administered before the intervention (baseline) and at follow-ups conducted 3, 6, and 12 months after the intervention.
The study found that twelve months after the intervention, adolescents participating in the intervention reported having significantly fewer sexual partners in the previous three months. The study found no statistically significant program impacts on measures of vaginal or anal sex or unprotected sex in the previous three months. Findings from the three- and six-month follow-ups were not considered for the review because they did not meet the review evidence standards. Specifically, both the three- and six-month follow-ups had a high rate of sample attrition, and the study did not establish baseline equivalence for the remaining sample members.
The study also examined program impacts on measures of substance use and delinquent behaviors. Findings for these outcomes were not considered for this review because the outcomes fell outside the scope of the review.