Study Details

Citation

Jemmott, J. B., III., Jemmott, L. S., Fong, G. T. (1992). Reductions in HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among black male adolescents: Effects of an AIDS prevention intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 82(3), 372-77.

Program Name

Be Proud! Be Responsible!

Show Evidence of Effectiveness
Yes
Study Rating and Explanation
High

Random assignment study that met all criteria for a high rating; findings show a positive, statistically significant impact for at least one behavioral outcome

Program Information

Program Type
Sexual health education
Program Length
Fewer than 10 sessions

Evaluation Setting

Evaluation Setting
After school

Study Sample

Average Age Group
14 to 17
Majority Racial/Ethnic Group
African American or Black
Gender
Young men

Research Design

Assignment Method
Randomized controlled trial
Sample Size

157

Number of Follow-Ups

2

Length of Last Follow-Up

3

Year of Last Data Collection
1989

Study Findings

Result Number Partners
Potentially favorable evidence
Result Sexual Activity
Favorable evidence
Result Contraceptive
Potentially favorable evidence
Reviewed Studies
High-Quality Randomized Trial
Protocol Version
Version 1.0
Effect Sizes
{"0": {"ProgramName":"Be Proud! Be Responsible!","StudyID":"PPRER000030","ManuscriptID":"PPRER000030","sid":"21","Rating":"High","OutcomeName":"Number of days respondent did not use condom during coitus in past three months","OutcomeDomain":"Contraceptive Use","OutcomeDichotomous":"No","SampleType":"Full sample","FUTimingMonths":"3","FUReference":"End of program","MeanTreat":"0.64","MeanComp":"2.38","TpperES":"NA","StatSigRepEffect":"Yes","RepEffectFavorable":"Yes","RepEffectMeet":"Yes"},"1": {"ProgramName":"Be Proud! Be Responsible!","StudyID":"PPRER000030","ManuscriptID":"PPRER000030","sid":"21","Rating":"High","OutcomeName":"Number of coital partners in past three months","OutcomeDomain":"Number of Sexual Partners","OutcomeDichotomous":"No","SampleType":"Full sample","FUTimingMonths":"3","FUReference":"End of program","MeanTreat":"0.85","MeanComp":"1.79","TpperES":"NA","StatSigRepEffect":"Yes","RepEffectFavorable":"Yes","RepEffectMeet":"Yes"},"2": {"ProgramName":"Be Proud! Be Responsible!","StudyID":"PPRER000030","ManuscriptID":"PPRER000030","sid":"21","Rating":"High","OutcomeName":"Number of female anal sex partners in past three months","OutcomeDomain":"Number of Sexual Partners","OutcomeDichotomous":"No","SampleType":"Full sample","FUTimingMonths":"3","FUReference":"End of program","MeanTreat":"0.13","MeanComp":"0.61","TpperES":"NA","StatSigRepEffect":"No","RepEffectFavorable":"Not significant","RepEffectMeet":"No"},"3": {"ProgramName":"Be Proud! Be Responsible!","StudyID":"PPRER000030","ManuscriptID":"PPRER000030","sid":"21","Rating":"High","OutcomeName":"Coitus in past three months","OutcomeDomain":"Sexual Activity","OutcomeDichotomous":"Yes","SampleType":"Full sample","FUTimingMonths":"3","FUReference":"End of program","MeanTreat":"0.48","MeanComp":"0.60","TpperES":"-0.290","StatSigRepEffect":"No","RepEffectFavorable":"Not significant","RepEffectMeet":"No"},"4": {"ProgramName":"Be Proud! Be Responsible!","StudyID":"PPRER000030","ManuscriptID":"PPRER000030","sid":"21","Rating":"High","OutcomeName":"Heterosexual anal sex in past three months","OutcomeDomain":"Sexual Activity","OutcomeDichotomous":"Yes","SampleType":"Full sample","FUTimingMonths":"3","FUReference":"End of program","MeanTreat":"0.07","MeanComp":"0.27","TpperES":"-0.975","StatSigRepEffect":"Yes","RepEffectFavorable":"Yes","RepEffectMeet":"Yes"},"5": {"ProgramName":"Be Proud! Be Responsible!","StudyID":"PPRER000030","ManuscriptID":"PPRER000030","sid":"21","Rating":"High","OutcomeName":"Number of days respondent had coitus","OutcomeDomain":"Sexual Activity","OutcomeDichotomous":"No","SampleType":"Full sample","FUTimingMonths":"3","FUReference":"End of program","MeanTreat":"2.15","MeanComp":"5.48","TpperES":"NA","StatSigRepEffect":"Yes","RepEffectFavorable":"Yes","RepEffectMeet":"Yes"},"6": {"ProgramName":"Be Proud! Be Responsible!","StudyID":"PPRER000030","ManuscriptID":"PPRER000030","sid":"21","Rating":"High","OutcomeName":"Number of days respondent had heterosexual anal intercourse in past three months","OutcomeDomain":"Sexual Activity","OutcomeDichotomous":"No","SampleType":"Full sample","FUTimingMonths":"3","FUReference":"End of program","MeanTreat":"0.36","MeanComp":"0.92","TpperES":"NA","StatSigRepEffect":"No","RepEffectFavorable":"Not significant","RepEffectMeet":"No"}}

NA = Not available. This means the authors did not report the information in the manuscripts associated with the studies we reviewed.

a This information was not available whenever authors did not report information for the treatment and comparison groups separately on outcome means, standard deviations, and/or sample sizes.

b Authors reported that the program effect (impact) estimate is statistically significant with a p-value of less than 0.05 based on a two-tailed test.

c For some outcomes, having less of that outcome is favorable. In those cases, an effect with a negative sign is favorable to the treatment group (that is, the treatment group had a more favorable outcome than the comparison group, on average).

d An effect shows credibly estimated, statistically significant evidence whenever it has a p-value of less than 0.05 based on a two-tailed test, includes the appropriate adjustment for clustering (if applicable), and it is not based on an endogenous subgroup.

Details

The program's evidence of effectiveness was first established in a randomized controlled trial involving African American male adolescents recruited from school- and community-based locations in Philadelphia, PA. Study participants were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received the program during a single 5-hour session delivered on a Saturday morning, or to a control group that received a career opportunities development program during the same 5-hour session. Surveys were administered immediately before the program session (baseline), immediately after the session ended, and three months after the session.

The study found that three months after the program session, adolescents in the treatment group reported having significantly fewer female sexual partners (difference in means = -0.93, confidence interval = -1.53 to -0.33), fewer days of vaginal intercourse (difference in means = -3.32, confidence interval = -5.78 to -0.89), and fewer days of vaginal intercourse without a condom (difference in means = -1.73, confidence interval = -2.86 to -0.60). In addition, adolescents in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report having had heterosexual anal sex in the last three months (difference in means = -0.19, confidence interval = -0.32 to -0.06). The study found no statistically significant program impacts on reports of ever having had sex, the number of female anal sex partners, or the frequency of heterosexual anal sex in the last three months.

The study also examined program impacts on measures of attitudes, intentions, and knowledge regarding sexual risk behaviors. Findings for these outcomes were not considered for the review because the outcomes fell outside the scope of the review.