Study Details


Allen, J. P., Philliber, S., Herrling, S., Kuperminc, G. P. (1997). Preventing teen pregnancy and academic failure: Experimental evaluation of a developmentally based approach. Child Development, 68(4), 729-742.

Program Name

Teen Outreach Program (TOP)

Show Evidence of Effectiveness
Study Rating and Explanation

Random assignment study that met all criteria for a high rating; findings show a positive, statistically significant impact for at least one behavioral outcome

Program Information

Program Type
Positive youth development
Program Length
More than 20 sessions

Evaluation Setting

Evaluation Setting
In school: High school

Study Sample

Average Age Group
14 to 17
Majority Racial/Ethnic Group
African American or Black
Youth of any gender

Research Design

Assignment Method
Mixed Methods
Sample Size


Number of Follow-Ups


Length of Last Follow-Up


Year of Last Data Collection

Study Findings

Result Pregnancy
Potentially favorable evidence
Reviewed Studies
High-Quality Randomized Trial
Protocol Version
Version 1.0
Effect Sizes
{"0":{"ProgramName":"Teen Outreach Program (TOP)","StudyID":"PPRER000132","ManuscriptID":"PPRER000132","sid":"237","Rating":"High","OutcomeName":"Pregnant","OutcomeDomain":"Pregnancy","OutcomeDichotomous":"Yes","SampleType":"Subgroup--women","FUTimingMonths":"9","FUReference":"From baseline (at end of program)","MeanTreat":"0.04","MeanComp":"0.10","TpperES":"-0.540","StatSigRepEffect":"Yes","RepEffectFavorable":"Yes","RepEffectMeet":"Yes"}}

NA = Not available. This means the authors did not report the information in the manuscripts associated with the studies we reviewed.

a This information was not available whenever authors did not report information for the treatment and comparison groups separately on outcome means, standard deviations, and/or sample sizes.

b Authors reported that the program effect (impact) estimate is statistically significant with a p-value of less than 0.05 based on a two-tailed test.

c For some outcomes, having less of that outcome is favorable. In those cases, an effect with a negative sign is favorable to the treatment group (that is, the treatment group had a more favorable outcome than the comparison group, on average).

d An effect shows credibly estimated, statistically significant evidence whenever it has a p-value of less than 0.05 based on a two-tailed test, includes the appropriate adjustment for clustering (if applicable), and it is not based on an endogenous subgroup.


The program's evidence of effectiveness was first established in a randomized controlled trial involving high school students in 25 school- and community-based sites across the United States. Within each study site, participants were randomly assigned, either individually or by classroom, to either a treatment group that received the program or a control group that received whatever regular curricula and programs each site provided. Surveys were administered immediately before the program started (baseline) and nine months later at the end of the program.The study found that at the time of the 9-month follow-up survey, female adolescents participating in the program were significantly less likely to report they had become pregnant during the academic year of the program (odds ratio = 0.41, confidence interval = 0.26 to 0.64). The study did not estimate program impacts on male adolescents' reports of having caused a pregnancy.The study also examined program impacts on rates of school suspension and course failure. Findings for these outcomes were not considered for the review because they fell outside the scope of the review.