Crean, H. F., Seibold-Simpson, S. M., Jambon, M., Kreipe, R. E. (2015). Evaluation of the Teen Outreach Program in Rochester, New York: Finding from the replication of an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Rochester, New York: University of Rochester School of Nursing.

Robinson, W. T., Seibold-Simpson, S., Crean, H. F., Spruille-White, B. (2016b). Randomized Trials of the Teen Outreach Program in Luisiana and Rochester, New York. American Journal of Public Health, 106, S39-S44. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303403

Program Name
Teen Outreach Program (TOP)
Show Evidence of Effectiveness
Study Rating and Explanation
ModerateRandom assignment study with high attrition that that did not meet the criteria for a high rating but met all criteria for a moderate rating; findings show no positive, statistically significant impact on a relevant behavioral outcome measure for either the full sample or key subgroups

Program Information

Program Type
Positive youth development
Program Length
More than 20 sessions

Evaluation Setting

Evaluation Setting
After school

Study Sample

Average Age Group
13 or younger
Majority Racial/Ethnic Group
African American or Black
Youth of any gender

Research Design

Assignment Method
Cluster randomized controlled trial
Sample Size
Number of Follow-Ups
Length of Last Follow-Up
Year of Last Data Collection

Study Findings

Result Sexual Activity
Indeterminate evidence
Result Contraceptive
Indeterminate evidence
Reviewed Studies
Moderate-Quality Randomized Trial
Protocol Version
Version 5.0
A separate recent study evaluated the program using a cluster randomized controlled trial that involved 1,188 adolescents recruited from recreation centers in Rochester, NY. In each of three years, the study randomly assigned 11 recreation centers to either a treatment group implementing TOP or a control group implementing a workplace competencies program, creating a total of 33 analytic clusters. Surveys were administered before the program started (baseline), and again immediately after the program ended (about nine months after the baseline).

The study findings failed to replicate the favorable impact on sexual activity rates found in the earlier study by Daley et al. (2015). In particular, immediately after the program ended, the study found that adolescents in the group receiving TOP were no less likely than adolescents in the control group to report ever having sex (odds ratio = 0.68). The study also examined program impacts on sexual activity without using an effective method of birth control in the last three months. The study found no statistically significant program impacts on that outcome. The study did not measure program impacts on pregnancy.
Effect Sizes
{"0": {"ProgramName":"Teen Outreach Program (TOP)","StudyID":"PPRER016017","ManuscriptID":"PPRER016017","sid":"237","Rating":"Moderate","OutcomeName":"Sex without effective method of birth control","OutcomeDomain":"Contraceptive Use","OutcomeDichotomous":"Yes","SampleType":"Full sample","FUTimingMonths":"0","FUReference":"End of Program","MeanTreat":"8.00","MeanComp":"13.00","TpperES":"0.032","StatSigRepEffect":"No","RepEffectFavorable":"Not significant","RepEffectMeet":"No"},"1": {"ProgramName":"Teen Outreach Program (TOP)","StudyID":"PPRER016017","ManuscriptID":"PPRER016017","sid":"237","Rating":"Moderate","OutcomeName":"Delay of sexual onset","OutcomeDomain":"Sexual Activity","OutcomeDichotomous":"Yes","SampleType":"Subgroup--BL sexually experienced","FUTimingMonths":"0","FUReference":"End of Program","MeanTreat":"28.00","MeanComp":"26.00","TpperES":"-0.002","StatSigRepEffect":"No","RepEffectFavorable":"Not significant","RepEffectMeet":"No"},"2": {"ProgramName":"Teen Outreach Program (TOP)","StudyID":"PPRER016017","ManuscriptID":"PPRER016017","sid":"237","Rating":"Moderate","OutcomeName":"Ever having had sexual intercourse","OutcomeDomain":"Sexual Activity","OutcomeDichotomous":"Yes","SampleType":"Full sample","FUTimingMonths":"0","FUReference":"End of Program","MeanTreat":"0.11","MeanComp":"0.16","TpperES":"-0.238","StatSigRepEffect":"No","RepEffectFavorable":"Not significant","RepEffectMeet":"No"}}

NA = Not available. This means the authors did not report the information in the manuscripts associated with the studies we reviewed.

a This information was not available whenever authors did not report information for the treatment and comparison groups separately on outcome means, standard deviations, and/or sample sizes.

b Authors reported that the program effect (impact) estimate is statistically significant with a p-value of less than 0.05 based on a two-tailed test.

c For some outcomes, having less of that outcome is favorable. In those cases, an effect with a negative sign is favorable to the treatment group (that is, the treatment group had a more favorable outcome than the comparison group, on average).

d An effect shows credibly estimated, statistically significant evidence whenever it has a p-value of less than 0.05 based on a two-tailed test, includes the appropriate adjustment for clustering (if applicable), and it is not based on an endogenous subgroup.