1. Evidence for Program Improvement
  2. Externalizing Academic-Educational
  3. General Personal or Social Support Content

General Personal or Social Support Content


Externalizing Behavior

Intervention Family

Academic-Educational Interventions

General Personal or Social Support

For academic-educational interventions, content focused on general personal or social support for youth may not be as beneficial as other content targeting externalizing behavior.

Is your program faced with tight resources and the need to prioritize which services you offer? It may be useful to weigh the costs and benefits of offering content that had smaller effects on externalizing behavior. While interventions in the academic and educational family showed strong effects on externalizing behavior in our analysis, those that included general personal or social support content tended to have smaller effects on externalizing behavior than interventions without this content.

Examples include peer support groups, open-ended discussion groups, or individual counseling where the facilitator or counselor does not teach specific skills. Such activities, when provided in the context of an academic-educational intervention, may not have the direct or sustained focus on behavior needed to produce large impacts on externalizing behavior.

Consider the following in examining your program:

  • Assess the level of focus your intervention has on general personal or social support, and the reasons for including these services. If your primary reason is to decrease externalizing behavior, consider shifting the emphasis of these services to behavioral strategies to improve classroom behavior. However, if you include these services to address other outcomes besides externalizing behavior, there is likely no need to make changes.