Youth who receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and especially young adults of transition age, should be involved in planning for life after high school as early as possible and no later than age 16. Transition services should stem from the individual youth’s needs and strengths, ensuring that planning takes into account his or her interests, preferences, and desires for the future.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2017). 2017 National healthcare quality and disparities report. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/research/findings/nhqrdr/2017nhqdr.pdf
Anderson, M., & Jiang, J. (2018). Teens, social media & technology. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/05/31/teens-social-media-technology-2018/
Anderson, M. (2019, July). “Teens, Social Media & Technology.” Presented at Social Media and Youth Mental Health Meeting; Rockville, MD.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Center on the Developing Child. (n.d.). Toxic stress. Harvard University. Retrieved from https://developingchild.harvard.edu/science/key-concepts/toxic-stress/
Center on the Developing Child. (n.d.). Resilience. Harvard University. Retrieved from https://developingchild.harvard.edu/science/key-concepts/resilience/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). A look inside food deserts. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/features/fooddeserts/index.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). NVSS report: Deaths: Final data for 2016 (No. 5). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_05.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019a). Drowsy driving: Asleep at the wheel. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/features/dsdrowsydriving/index.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019b). The social-ecological model: A framework for prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/publichealthissue/social-ecologicalmodel.html
Englander, E. (2019, July). “Emerging Issues That Complicate Cyberbullying Interventions.” Presented at Social Media and Youth Mental Health Meeting; Rockville, MD.
Feldman, R. S. (2016a). Physical development in adolescence. In (7th ed.), Child Development (pp. 358–383). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Feldman, R. S. (2016b). Cognitive development in adolescence. In (7th ed.), Child Development (pp. 384–411). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Feldman, R. S. (2016c). Social and personality development in adolescence. In (7th ed.), Child Development (pp. 412–442). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Feldman, R. S. (2016d). Theoretical perspectives and research. In (7th ed.), Child Development (pp. 17–49). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Franke, H. A. (2014). Toxic stress: Effects, prevention and treatment. Children, 1(3), 390-402. doi: 10.3390/children1030390
Haas, S. A. (2006). Health selection and the process of social stratification: The effect of childhood health on socioeconomic attainment. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47, 339–354.
Johnston, L. D., Miech, R. A., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2019). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use 1975-2018: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org//pubs/monographs/mtf-overview2018.pdf
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Martin, M. E. (2017). Introduction to human services profession. In, (4th ed.), Introduction to human services: Through the eyes of practice settings. (p. 1–17). Boston, MA: Pearson.
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Metzler, M., Merrick, M. T., Klevens, J., Ports, K. A., & Ford, D. C. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and life opportunities: Shifting the narrative. Children and Youth Services Review, 72, 141–149. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.10.021
National Center for Education Statistics. (2017). Public high school 4-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR), by race/ethnicity and selected demographic characteristics for the United States, the 50 states, and the District of Columbia: School year 2015-16 [Data set]. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/ccd/tables/ACGR_RE_and_characteristics_2015-16.asp
National Institute of Mental Health. (2017). Eating disorders. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/eating-disorders.shtml
Office of Population Affairs. (2019). The changing face of America’s adolescents. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/facts-and-stats/changing-face-of-americas-adolescents/index.html#ftn2
Peterson, J. S., & Ray, K. E. (2006). Bullying and the gifted: Victims, perpetrators, prevalence, and effects. Gifted Child Quarterly, 50(2), 148–168. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jean_Peterson/publication/237254877_Bullying_and_the_Gifted_Victims_Perpetrators_Prevalence_and_Effects/links/55d7c8a008aed6a199a6959f.pdf
Richardson, A., Allen, J. A., Xiao, H., & Vallone, D. (2012). Effects of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on health information-seeking, confidence, and trust. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 23(4), 1477–1493.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2012/index.htm
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The health consequences of smoking — 50 years of progress: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/50th-anniversary/index.htm
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Valladares, S., & Anderson Moore, K. (2009). The strengths of poor families. Child Trends. Retrieved from https://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/Child_Trends-2009_5_14_RB_poorfamstrengths.pdf
Other Resources on this Topic
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Videos & Podcasts
Research links early leadership with increased self-efficacy and suggests that leadership can help youth to develop decision making and interpersonal skills that support successes in the workforce and adulthood. In addition, young leaders tend to be more involved in their communities, and have lower dropout rates than their peers. Youth leaders also show considerable benefits for their communities, providing valuable insight into the needs and interests of young people
Statistics reflecting the number of youth suffering from mental health, substance abuse, and co-occurring disorders highlight the necessity for schools, families, support staff, and communities to work together to develop targeted, coordinated, and comprehensive transition plans for young people with a history of mental health needs and/or substance abuse.
Nearly 30,000 youth aged out of foster care in Fiscal Year 2009, which represents nine percent of the young people involved in the foster care system that year. This transition can be challenging for youth, especially youth who have grown up in the child welfare system.
Research has demonstrated that as many as one in five children/youth have a diagnosable mental health disorder. Read about how coordination between public service agencies can improve treatment for these youth.
Civic engagement has the potential to empower young adults, increase their self-determination, and give them the skills and self-confidence they need to enter the workforce. Read about one youth’s experience in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC).