Other Youth Topics


  1. Youth Topics
  2. Employment
  3. Hazardous Jobs

Hazardous Jobs

Eighteen is the minimum age for employment in non-agricultural occupations declared hazardous by the Secretary of Labor. The rules prohibiting working in hazardous occupations (HO) apply either on an industry basis, or on an occupational basis, no matter what industry the job is in. Parents employing their own children are subject to these same rules. General exemptions apply to all of these occupations, while limited apprentice/student-learner exemptions apply to those occupations marked with an *

These rules prohibit work in, or with the following:

HO 1.

Manufacturing and storing of explosives.

HO 2.

Driving a motor vehicle and being an outside helper on a motor vehicle.

HO 3.

Coal mining.

HO 4.

Forest fire fighting and fire prevention, timber tract management, forestry services, logging, and saw mill occupations.


HO 5.

Power-driven woodworking machines.

HO 6.

Exposure to radioactive substances.

HO 7.

Power-driven hoisting apparatus.


HO 8.

Power-driven metal-forming, punching, and shearing machines.

HO 9.

Mining, other than coal mining.

HO 10.

Meat and poultry packing or processing (including the use of power-driven meat slicing machines).

HO 11.

Power-driven bakery machines.


HO 12.

Balers, compactors, and paper-products machines.

HO 13.

Manufacturing brick, tile, and related products.


HO 14.

Power-driven circular saws, band saws, guillotine shears, chain saws, reciprocating saws, wood chippers, and abrasive cutting discs.

HO 15.

Wrecking, demolition, and shipbreaking operations.


HO 16.

Roofing operations and all work on or about a roof.


HO 17.

Excavation operations.

* These HOs provide limited exemptions for 16- and 17-year-olds who are bona-fide student-learners and apprentices.

You can obtain more detail about any or all of the above listings by reviewing the child labor regulations.

Youth Briefs

How Individualized Education Program (IEP) Transition Planning Makes a Difference for Youth with Disabilities

Youth who receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and especially young adults of transition age, should be involved in planning for life after high school as early as possible and no later than age 16. Transition services should stem from the individual youth’s needs and strengths, ensuring that planning takes into account his or her interests, preferences, and desires for the future.

Youth Transitioning to Adulthood: How Holding Early Leadership Positions Can Make a Difference

Research links early leadership with increased self-efficacy and suggests that leadership can help youth to develop decision making and interpersonal skills that support successes in the workforce and adulthood. In addition, young leaders tend to be more involved in their communities, and have lower dropout rates than their peers. Youth leaders also show considerable benefits for their communities, providing valuable insight into the needs and interests of young people

How Trained Service Professionals and Self-Advocacy Makes a Difference for Youth with Mental Health, Substance Abuse, or Co-occurring Issues

Statistics reflecting the number of youth suffering from mental health, substance abuse, and co-occurring disorders highlight the necessity for schools, families, support staff, and communities to work together to develop targeted, coordinated, and comprehensive transition plans for young people with a history of mental health needs and/or substance abuse.

Young Adults Formerly in Foster Care: Challenges and Solutions

Nearly 30,000 youth aged out of foster care in Fiscal Year 2009, which represents nine percent of the young people involved in the foster care system that year. This transition can be challenging for youth, especially youth who have grown up in the child welfare system.

Coordinating Systems to Support Transition Age Youth with Mental Health Needs

Research has demonstrated that as many as one in five children/youth have a diagnosable mental health disorder. Read about how coordination between public service agencies can improve treatment for these youth.

Civic Engagement Strategies for Transition Age Youth

Civic engagement has the potential to empower young adults, increase their self-determination, and give them the skills and self-confidence they need to enter the workforce. Read about one youth’s experience in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC).