Youth who receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and especially young adults of transition age, should be involved in planning for life after high school as early as possible and no later than age 16. Transition services should stem from the individual youth’s needs and strengths, ensuring that planning takes into account his or her interests, preferences, and desires for the future.
Afterschool Alliance. (2014). America After 3PM: Afterschool Programs in Demand. Retrieved from http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/documents/AA3PM-2014/AA3PM_Key_Findings.pdf
Afterschool Alliance. (2015). Evaluation Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs’ Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life. Retrieved from http://afterschoolalliance.org/documents/Evaluation_Backgrounder.pdf
Afterschool Alliance. (2020). This is Afterschool. Retrieved from http://afterschoolalliance.org//documents/National-One-Pager-2020.pdf
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research & the Brookings Institution. (2015). Opportunity, Responsibility, and Security: A Consensus Plan for Reducing Poverty and Restoring the American Dream. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Full-Report.pdf
American Institutes for Research. (2015). Supporting Social and Emotional Development Through Quality Afterschool Programs. Retrieved from https://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/Social-and-Emotional-Development-Afterschool-Programs.pdf
Barnett, R., & Gareis, K. (2004). Parental after school stress project. A Report by the Community, Families and Work Program at Brandeis University. Waltham, MA.
Beckett, M., Borman, G., Capizzano, J., Parsley, D., Ross, S., Schirm, A., et al. (2009). Structuring Out-of-School Time to Improve Academic Achievement. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/PracticeGuide/ost_pg_072109.pdf
Bouffard, S. M., Wimer, C., Caronongan, P., Little, P., Dearing, E., & Simpkins, S. D. (2006). Demographic differences in patterns of youth out-of-school time activity participation. Journal of Youth Development, 1(1), 24-40. Retrieved from: http://jyd.pitt.edu/ojs/jyd/article/view/396
Cradock, A. L., Barrett, J. L., Giles, C. M., Lee, R. M., Kenney, E. L., deBlois, M. E., Thayer, J. C., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2015). "Promoting Physical Activity With the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) Initiative: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial." JAMA Pediatrics 170(2): 155-162.
Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2007). The Impact of After-School Programs that Promote Personal and Social Skills. Collaborative for academic, social, and emotional learning (NJ1). Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505368.pdf
Gareis, K., & Barnett, R. C. (2006). After-school worries: Tough on parents, bad for business. Catalyst.
Gottfredson, D., Brown Cross, A., Wilson, D., Rorie, M., & Connell, N. (2010). Effects of participation in after-school programs for middle school students: A randomized trial. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 3(3), 282-313.
Jones, D. E., Greenberg, M., & Crowley, M. (2015). Early social-emotional functioning and public health: The relationship between kindergarten social competence and future wellness. American Journal of Public Health, 105(11), 2283-2290. Retrieved from https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302630
Lee, R. M., Giles, C. M., Cradock, A. L., Emmons, K. M., Okechukwu, C., Kenney, E. L., ... & Gortmaker, S. L. (2018). Impact of the Out-of-School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) group randomized controlled trial on children’s food, beverage, and calorie consumption among snacks served. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 118(8), 1425-1437.
Li, J., & Julian, M. (2012). Developmental relationships as the active ingredient: A unifying working hypothesis of “what works” across intervention settings. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(2), 157-166. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01151.x
Little, P. (2011). Expanded learning opportunities in Washington state: Pathways to student success. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsoutwashington.org/UserFiles/File/ELO%20Policy%20Brief%20 Single%20Pages.pdf
Little, P. (2013). School-Community Learning Partnerships: Essentials to Expanded Learning Success. In T. K. Peterson (Ed), Expanding minds and opportunities: Leveraging the power of afterschool and summer learning for student success. Washington, DC: Collaborative Communications Group. Retrieved from https://www.expandinglearning.org/sites/default/files/em_articles/6_schoolcommunitylearning.pdf
Lippman, L. H., Ryberg, R., Carney, R., & Moore, K. A. (2015). Workforce Connections: Key “soft skills” that foster youth workforce success: toward a consensus across fields. Washington, DC: Child Trends.
McCombs, J. S., Whitaker, A., & Yoo, P. (2017). The value of out-of-school time programs. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE200/PE267/RAND_PE267.pdf
Naftzger, N., Bonney, C., Donahue, T., Hutchinson, C., Margolin, J., & Vinson, M. (2007). 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) analytic support for evaluation and program monitoring: An overview of the 21st CCLC performance data: 2005–06. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates.
National Afterschool Association. (2018). HEPA Standards 2.0. Retrieved from https://indd.adobe.com/view/681ce31e-c7b2-4ab2-983d-d644ffb6b71d
National Commission for Social, Emotional, and Academic Development. (2018). Building Partnerships in Support of Where, When, & How Learning Happens. Retrieved from https://www.aspeninstitute.org/publications/building-partnerships-in-support-of-where-when-how-learning-happens/
Roehlkepartain, E. C., Pekel, K., Syvertsen, A. K., Sethi, J., Sullivan, T. K., & Scales, P. C. (2017). Relationships first: Creating connections that help young people thrive. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute, 1-20.
Smith, C. A., Akiva, T., Sugar, S., Lo, Y. J., Frank, K. A., Peck, S. C., ... & Devaney, T. (2012). Continuous quality improvement in afterschool settings: Impact findings from the Youth Program Quality Intervention study. Washington, DC: The Forum for Youth Investment.
Spring, K., Dietz, N., & Grimm, R. (2007). Leveling the path to participation: Volunteering and civic engagement among youth from disadvantaged circumstances. Washington, DC: Corporation for National & Community Service.
Yohalem, N., Pittman, K., & Edwards, S. L. (2010). Strengthening the Youth Development/Afterschool Workforce: Lessons Learned and Implications for Funders. Retrieved from https://youtheconomicopportunities.org/sites/default/files/uploads/resource/Strengthening_the_YD-AS_Workforce.pdf
Yohalem, N., Devaney, E., Smith, C., & Wilson-Ahlstrom, A. (2012). Building Citywide Systems for Quality: A Guide and Case Studies for Afterschool Leaders. Wallace Foundation.
Other Resources on this Topic
Tools & Guides
Research links early leadership with increased self-efficacy and suggests that leadership can help youth to develop decision making and interpersonal skills that support successes in the workforce and adulthood. In addition, young leaders tend to be more involved in their communities, and have lower dropout rates than their peers. Youth leaders also show considerable benefits for their communities, providing valuable insight into the needs and interests of young people
Statistics reflecting the number of youth suffering from mental health, substance abuse, and co-occurring disorders highlight the necessity for schools, families, support staff, and communities to work together to develop targeted, coordinated, and comprehensive transition plans for young people with a history of mental health needs and/or substance abuse.
Nearly 30,000 youth aged out of foster care in Fiscal Year 2009, which represents nine percent of the young people involved in the foster care system that year. This transition can be challenging for youth, especially youth who have grown up in the child welfare system.
Research has demonstrated that as many as one in five children/youth have a diagnosable mental health disorder. Read about how coordination between public service agencies can improve treatment for these youth.
Civic engagement has the potential to empower young adults, increase their self-determination, and give them the skills and self-confidence they need to enter the workforce. Read about one youth’s experience in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC).