Youth who receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and especially young adults of transition age, should be involved in planning for life after high school as early as possible and no later than age 16. Transition services should stem from the individual youth’s needs and strengths, ensuring that planning takes into account his or her interests, preferences, and desires for the future.
Substance Abuse Prevention
Elements of Effective Prevention Programs
There is a multitude of effective substance abuse prevention interventions that may have different areas of focus and can be implemented in a variety of settings. Interventions can involve the family, school, and community and may provide substance abuse prevention for an individual or a population of youth by focusing on environmental and community factors and policies, developmental factors, or skill development. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has identified 16 key principles for prevention programs based on risk and protective factors, the type of program, and the delivery of the program.
Core Components of Evidence-based Prevention Programs
Structure, content, and delivery are the core elements of effective research-based programs that NIDA suggests can help to address the key principles, and should be considered when determining what kind of prevention program is best for individuals and your community.1
Structure refers to the following elements of a prevention program:
- Program type. School- and family-based programs are two program types that have been shown to be effective in preventing drug abuse, with media and computer technology programs beginning to demonstrate effectiveness as well.
- Audience. Programs are usually designed for a particular audience (e.g., girls at risk, Latino youth) to more effectively meet its needs.
- Setting. Programs are traditionally designed to reach an audience in its primary setting (e.g., a school-based program held in a school); however, it is becoming more common for programs not to be held in their primary setting (e.g., a family-based program held at a school, or a school-based program implemented in a youth organization, such as a Boys and Girls Club). Programs that focus on multiple components or program types often reach their intended populations through a variety of settings. Combining two or more effective programs has proven to be more effective than conducting a single program.
The specific content of prevention programs varies, but is designed to reduce risk factors and strengthen protective factors. The elements of a program's content should include the following:
- Information. Information can include facts about drug laws and policies, and drugs and their effects. Although drug information is important, it has not been found to be an effective intervention by itself; that is, without additional prevention components.
- Skills development. Training to develop skills helps to build and improve behaviors (e.g., communication within the family, social and emotional development, academic and social competence, and dealing with peer pressure).
- Strategies. Some prevention programs are targeted at structural change (e.g., enforcing existing laws, such as those on alcohol or tobacco sales to minors, establishing tolerance policies, enforcing school rules or promoting norm changes, and establishing curfews).
- Services. Examples of services a program provides might include school, peer, or family counseling; drug-free zones; and health care.
The delivery of a prevention program includes the following elements:
- Program selection or adaptation. Communities must match effective research-based programs to their community needs in order to ensure the right fit. Adaptation involves changing a program to fit the needs of a specific population in various settings. The program’s core elements are maintained to ensure fidelity to the model, while changes address the community’s specific needs.
- Implementation. Implementing a program refers to how it is delivered, including the number of sessions, methods used, and program follow-up. Proper implementation is key to program effectiveness.
Prevention programs have proven to be effective, but families and influential adults continue to play the most important role in determining how youth handle the lure of alcohol, cigarettes, misuse of prescription drugs, and illegal drugs. More recent studies have shown that parents and guardians (and adults influential in a youth’s life) who speak to their children about the issues and have dinner with them on a regular basis, have children with a lower rate of use and abuse.2 Prevention programs can help to support family/mentoring relationships by providing parenting/mentoring skills and communication strategies.3
Intervening early—before high school—is critical. The data suggest that patterns of substance abuse become worse in the high school years. Individuals who begin using alcohol or tobacco when they are very young are more likely to abuse them later in life, when it becomes much more difficult to quit.
Mentoring for Preventing and Reducing Substance Use and Associated Risks among Youth
This review takes stock of the research that addresses the potential for mentoring to serve as a strategy for preventing and reducing substance use and the negative effects on personal health and well-being that may stem from this behavior. The review suggests several take-home messages for mentoring researchers and practitioners.
National Institute on Drug Abuse
A division of the National Institutes of Health, NIDA’s mission is to lead the nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction.
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention
The Center, a division of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, provides national leadership in the federal effort to prevent alcohol, tobacco, and other drug problems.
National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP)
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration supports NREPP, a searchable online registry of more than 200 interventions supporting mental health promotion, substance abuse prevention, and mental health and substance abuse treatment. NREPP connects members of the public to intervention developers so they can learn how to implement these approaches in their communities.
Emoji Drug Code: Decoded (PDF, 1 page)
This fact sheet provides parents, caregivers, educators, and other influencers with a road map on how emojis are used in conjunction with illegal drug activity. It lists symbols used to communicate about specific substances often advertised and sold on social media and e-commerce platforms.
Be Prepared to Have the Difficult Conversation (PDF, 1 page)
This data visualization flyer illustrates the correlation between alcohol use and other substance use to inform parents/guardians and communities.
Prevent Unsafe Drinking on Campus (PDF, 1 page)
This data visualization flyer illustrates heavy alcohol use and binge drinking statistics amongst college age youth to inform colleges and communities.
Take Action to Prevent Underage Alcohol Use (PDF, 1 page)
This data visualization flyer illustrates the steady decline of alcohol use amongst adolescents, informing parents/guardians and communities that taking action against underage drinking is effective.
Getting Ahead of a Problem (PDF, 1 page)
This data visualization flyer illustrates the drinking habits of adolescents to inform parents/guardians and communities.
Communities Talk to Prevent Underage Drinking: Success Stories
SAMHSA’s “Communities Talk” series distributes planning stipends every two years to community-based organizations, institutions of higher education, and statewide or state-based organizations to plan activities that educate youth, families, and communities about the potentially harmful consequences of underage and problem drinking among 12- to 25-year-olds. The 2021 Success Stories share how Communities Talk activities are working across the country and how communities are measuring success.
Leveraging Partnerships in Planning/Hosting a Communities Talk Event
This archived webinar features experts from around the country as they discuss best practices for engaging partners in planning, hosting, and promoting a successful Communities Talk event.
Building Partnerships with Organizations
This resource provides tips for organizations or individuals to consider when establishing strategic partnerships for Communities Talk activities and other substance use prevention activities.
Encouraging In-kind Contributions for Communities Talk Activities
This resource explains how to encourage in-kind support for underage drinking prevention activities from partner organizations, including expanding an organization’s capacity in the form of volunteers, materials, and services.
1 Robertson, David, & Rao, 2003
2 QEV Analytics, Ltd, Knowledge Networks, 2010
3 Robertson, David, & Rao, 2003
Research links early leadership with increased self-efficacy and suggests that leadership can help youth to develop decision making and interpersonal skills that support successes in the workforce and adulthood. In addition, young leaders tend to be more involved in their communities, and have lower dropout rates than their peers. Youth leaders also show considerable benefits for their communities, providing valuable insight into the needs and interests of young people
Statistics reflecting the number of youth suffering from mental health, substance abuse, and co-occurring disorders highlight the necessity for schools, families, support staff, and communities to work together to develop targeted, coordinated, and comprehensive transition plans for young people with a history of mental health needs and/or substance abuse.
Nearly 30,000 youth aged out of foster care in Fiscal Year 2009, which represents nine percent of the young people involved in the foster care system that year. This transition can be challenging for youth, especially youth who have grown up in the child welfare system.
Research has demonstrated that as many as one in five children/youth have a diagnosable mental health disorder. Read about how coordination between public service agencies can improve treatment for these youth.
Civic engagement has the potential to empower young adults, increase their self-determination, and give them the skills and self-confidence they need to enter the workforce. Read about one youth’s experience in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC).