Other Youth Topics


  1. Youth Topics
  2. School Climate
  3. References


Astor, R. A., Benbenishty, R., Marachi, R., & Meyer, H. A. (2005). The social context of schools: Monitoring and mapping student victimization in schools. In S. R. Jimerson & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of school violence and school safety: From research to practice (pp. 221–233). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Astor, R. A., Meyer, H., & Behre, W. (1999). Unowned places and times: Maps and interviews about violence in high schools. American Educational Research Journal, 36, 3–42.

Battistich, V., & Horn, A. (1997). The relationship between students’ sense of their school as a community and their involvement in problem behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1997–2001.

Becker, B., & Luthar, S. (2002). Social-emotional factors affecting achievement outcomes among disadvantaged students: Closing the achievement gap. Educational Psychologist, 37(4), 197–214.

Birkett, M., Espelage, D. L., & Koenig, B. (2009). LGB and questioning students in schools: The moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 38(7), 989–1000.

Blackorby, J., Chorost, M., Garza, N., & Guzman, A. M. (2003). The academic performance of secondary school students with disabilities. In M. Wagner, C. Marder, J. Blackorby, R. Cameto, L. Newman, P. Levine, & E. Davies-Mercier (Eds.),The achievements of youth with disabilities during secondary school. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.

Boccanfuso, C. and Kuhfeld M. (2011). Multiple Responses, Promising Results: Evidence-Based, Nonpunitive Alternatives to Zero Tolerance (Publication #2011-09). Washington, DC: Child Trends, citing Skiba, R. (2000). Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence: An Analysis of School Disciplinary Practice. Bloomington, IN: Education Policy Center Indiana University.

Brand, S., Felner, R. D., Shim, M., Seitsinger, A., & Dumas, T. (2003). Middle school improvement and reform: Development and validation of a school-level assessment of climate, cultural pluralism, and school safety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 570–588.

Bryk, A. S., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

California Department of Education. (2005). Getting results: Developing safe and healthy kids, update 5: Student health, supportive schools, and academic success. Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/he/at/documents/getresultsupdate5.pdf

Cash, C. S. (1993). Building conditions and student achievement and behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Center for Mental Health in Schools. (2008). Youngsters’ mental health and psychosocial problems: What are the data? Los Angeles, CA: Author.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2012, 61(4).

Chapman, C., Laird, J., Ifill, N., & KewalRamani, A. (2011). Trends in high school dropout and completion rates in the United States: 19722009 (NCES 2012-006). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012006

Child Trends & American Institutes for Research. (2012). Safe and Supportive Schools FY 2013 local education agency (LEA) needs assessment summary. Prepared for Safe and Supportive Schools Program, Office of Safe and Healthy Students, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: Authors.

Christenson, S. L., & Thurlow, M. L. (2004). School dropouts: Prevention considerations, interventions, and challenges. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 36–39.

Corcoran, T. B., Walker, L. J. & White, J. L. (1988). Working in urban schools. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership.

Denny, S. J., Robinson, E. M., Utter, J., Fleming, T. M., Grant, S., Milfont, T. L., & Clark, T. (2011). Do schools influence student risk-taking behaviors and emotional health symptoms? Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(3), 259–67.

Dwyer, K. (2011). School climate teams: Strategic planning for integrating promotion, prevention, and intervention into school climate (part 1). Safe and Supportive Schools. Retrieved from http://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/sites/default/files/sssta/20110526_SclClimateTeamsWebinarPart1051211FINAL.pdf

Earthman, G., Cash, C., & Van Berkum, D. (1995). A statewide study of student achievement and behavior and school building condition. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Dallas, TX.

Fabelo, T., Thompson, M. D., Plotkin, M., Carmichael, D., Marchbanks, M. P. III, & Booth E. A. (2011). Breaking schools’ rules: A statewide study of how school discipline relates to students’ success and juvenile justice involvement. College Station, TX: Council of State Governments Justice Center; Public Policy Research Institute of Texas A&M University. Available at http://csgjusticecenter.org/youth/breaking-schools-rules-report

Federal Partners in Bullying Prevention. (2012). School based health professionals respond to bullying [PowerPoint slides]. 

Fleming, T. M., Merry, S. N., Robinson, E. M., Denny, S. J., & Watson, P. D. (2007). Self-reported suicide attempts and associated risk and protective factors among secondary school students in New Zealand. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(3), 213–221.

Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations. Developmental Psychology, 42(4), 698–713.

Glew G. M., Fan M. Y., Katon W., Rivara F. P., & Kernic M. A. (2005). Bullying, psychosocial adjustment, and academic performance in elementary school. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 159(11), 1026–1031.

Goodenow, C. (1993). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 79–90.

Harper, K. (2010, December). Measuring school climate. Paper presented to the Safe and Supportive Schools Grantee Meeting, Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/school-climate

Hussey, D. L., & Guo, S. (2003). Measuring behavior change in young children receiving intensive school-based mental health services. Journal of Community Psychology, 31(6), 629–639.

Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover, teacher shortages, and the organization of schools (Document R-01-1). Seattle: University of Washington, Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy.

Jiang, Y., Perry, D. K., & Hesser, J. E. (2010). Suicide patterns and association with predictors among Rhode Island public high school students: A latent class analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 100(9), 1701–1707.

Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Bartkiewicz, M.J., Boesen, M. J., & Palmer, N. A. (2012). The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: GLSEN. Retrieved from http://glsen.org/sites/default/files/2011%20National%20School%20Climate%20Survey%20Full%20Report.pdf

LaRusso, M., Romer, D., & Selman, R. (2008). Teachers as builders of respectful school climates: implications for adolescent drug use norms and depressive symptoms in high school. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 37(4), 386–398.

Libbey, H., Ireland, M., & Resnick, M. (2002). Social connectedness: Is protection cumulative? Journal of Adolescent Health, 30(2), 102.

Luiselli, J. K., Putnam, R. F., Handler, M. W., & Feinburg, A. B. (2005). Whole-school Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on student discipline problems and academic performance. Educational Psychology, 25(2-3), 183–198.

Luiselli, J. K., Putnam, R. F., & Sunderland, M. (2002). Longitudinal evaluation of behavior support intervention in a public middle school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 4(3), 182–188.

Mayer, G. R. (2001). Antisocial-behavior: Its causes and prevention within our schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 414–429.

McGraw, K., Moore, S., Fuller, A., & Bates, G. (2008). Family, peer and school connectedness in final year secondary school students. Australian Psychologist, 43, 27–37.

McNeely, C. A., Nonnemaker, J. M., & Blum, R. W. (2002). Promoting student connectedness to school: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of School Health, 72(4), 138–146.

Mendez, L. M. (2003). Predictors of suspension and negative school outcomes: A longitudinal investigation. New Directions for Youth Development, 99.

Milsom, A. (2006). Creating positive school experiences for students with disabilities. Professional School Counseling, 10(1).

Muller, C. (2001). The role of caring in the teacher-student relationship for at-risk students. Sociological Inquiry, 71(2), 241–255.

National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments. (n.d.1.). Implementation. Retrieved from http://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/topic-research/program-implementation

National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments. (n.d.2.). School climate measurement. Retrieved from http://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/topic-research/school-climate-measurement

Neild, R. C., Stoner-Eby, S., & Furstenberg, F. F. (2001). Connecting entrance and departure: The transition to ninth grade and high school dropout. Retrieved from http://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/k-12-education/school-dropouts/connecting-entrance-and-departure-the-transition-to-ninth-grade-and-high-school-dropout

Oliver, R. M., Wehby, J., & Reschly, D. J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Paper presented at meeting of Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.

Osher, D. (2012). Making the case for the importance of school climate and its measurement. Safe and Supportive Schools. Retrieved from http://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/sites/default/files/sssta/20120925_OTAMakingtheCase92012.pdf

Osher, D., Bear, G. G., Sprague, J. R., & Doyle, W. (2010). How can we improve school discipline? Educational Researcher, 39, 48–58.

Osher, D., Sprague, J., Weissberg, R. P., Axelrod, J., Keenan, S., Kendziora, K., & Zins, J. E. (2008). A comprehensive approach to promoting social, emotional, and academic growth in contemporary schools. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V, Vol. 4 (pp. 1263–1278). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Pinkus, L. (2009). Moving beyond AYP: High school performance indicators. Alliance for Excellence in Education. Retrieved from http://all4ed.org/wp-content/uploads/SPIMovingBeyondAYP.pdf

Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., et al. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(10), 823–32.

Ripski, M. B., & Gregory, A. (2009). Unfair, unsafe, and unwelcome: Do high school students’ perceptions of unfairness, hostility, and victimization in school predict engagement and achievement? Journal of School Violence, 8(4), 355–375.

Robers, S., Kemp, J., Truman, J., & Snyder, T. (2013). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2012 (NCES 2013-036/ NCJ 241446). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, and U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Seelman, K. L., Walls, N. E., Hazel, C., & Wisneski, H. (2012). Student school engagement among sexual minority students: Understanding the contributors to predicting academic outcomes. Journal of Social Service Research, 38(1), 3–17.

Sprague, J. (2007). Creating school wide prevention and intervention strategies: Effective strategies for creating safer schools and communities. Washington, DC: The George Washington University, Hamilton Fish Institute on School and Community Violence, & Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, with support from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.

StopBullying.gov. (n.d.). Bullying and youth with disabilities and special health needs. Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/at-risk/groups/special-needs/BullyingTipSheet.pdf

Suldo, S. M., McMahan, M., Chappel, A. M., & Loker, T. (2012). Relationships between perceived school climate and adolescent mental health across genders. School Mental Health, 4(2), 69–80.

Taylor, D. L., & Tashakkori, A. (1995). Decision participation and school climate as predictors of job satisfaction and teachers’ sense of efficacy. Journal of Experimental Education, 63(3), 217–227.

Tobin, T., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1996). Patterns in middle school discipline records. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4(2), 282–294.

Wagner, M. 2005. Youth with disabilities leaving secondary school. In Changes over time in the early post school outcomes of youth with disabilities: A report of findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study (NTLS) and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NTLS2). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.

Way, N., Reddy, R., & Rhodes, J. (2007). Students’ perceptions of school climate during the middle school years: Associations with trajectories of psychological and behavioral adjustment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40(3/4), 194–213.

Weiss, H., Lopez, M., & Rosenberg, H. (2010). Beyond random acts: Family, school, and community engagement as an integral part of education reform. National Policy Forum for National, School, and Community Engagement. Retrieved from https://www.sedl.org/connections/engagement_forum/beyond_random_acts.pdf

Youth Briefs

How Individualized Education Program (IEP) Transition Planning Makes a Difference for Youth with Disabilities

Youth who receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and especially young adults of transition age, should be involved in planning for life after high school as early as possible and no later than age 16. Transition services should stem from the individual youth’s needs and strengths, ensuring that planning takes into account his or her interests, preferences, and desires for the future.

Youth Transitioning to Adulthood: How Holding Early Leadership Positions Can Make a Difference

Research links early leadership with increased self-efficacy and suggests that leadership can help youth to develop decision making and interpersonal skills that support successes in the workforce and adulthood. In addition, young leaders tend to be more involved in their communities, and have lower dropout rates than their peers. Youth leaders also show considerable benefits for their communities, providing valuable insight into the needs and interests of young people

How Trained Service Professionals and Self-Advocacy Makes a Difference for Youth with Mental Health, Substance Abuse, or Co-occurring Issues

Statistics reflecting the number of youth suffering from mental health, substance abuse, and co-occurring disorders highlight the necessity for schools, families, support staff, and communities to work together to develop targeted, coordinated, and comprehensive transition plans for young people with a history of mental health needs and/or substance abuse.

Young Adults Formerly in Foster Care: Challenges and Solutions

Nearly 30,000 youth aged out of foster care in Fiscal Year 2009, which represents nine percent of the young people involved in the foster care system that year. This transition can be challenging for youth, especially youth who have grown up in the child welfare system.

Coordinating Systems to Support Transition Age Youth with Mental Health Needs

Research has demonstrated that as many as one in five children/youth have a diagnosable mental health disorder. Read about how coordination between public service agencies can improve treatment for these youth.

Civic Engagement Strategies for Transition Age Youth

Civic engagement has the potential to empower young adults, increase their self-determination, and give them the skills and self-confidence they need to enter the workforce. Read about one youth’s experience in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC).