Other Youth Topics


AAP Council on Community Pediatrics. (2013). Providing care for children and adolescents facing homelessness and housing insecurity. Pediatrics, 131(6), 1206–1210. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-0645 

Administration for Children, Youth and Families, Family and Youth Services Bureau. (2016).  

Baharav, H., Leos-Urbel, J., Obradovic, J., & Bardack, S. (2017). The educational success of homeless and highly mobile students in San Francisco Unified School District. John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities, Stanford Graduate School of Education. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED588399.pdf (PDF, 25 pages)

Bardine, D. (2010). The intersection of youth homelessness and pregnancy and parenting [Issue brief]. National Network for Youth. https://www.nn4youth.org/wp-content/uploads/Issue-Brief_Youth-Homelessness-Preganancy-and-Parenting.pdf (PDF, 12 pages)

Brakenhoff, B., Jang, B. J., Slesnick, N., & Snyder, A. (2015). Longitudinal predictors of homelessness: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-97. Journal of Youth Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2015.1020930

Call, J., Gerke, D., & Barman-Adhikari, A. (2022). Facilitators and barriers to PrEP use among straight and LGB young adults experiencing homelessness. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 34(3), 285–301. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10538720.2021.1954575 

Chapin Hall. (2018). More than one million children in U.S. have a young parent who experienced homelessness in the past year. https://www.chapinhall.org/news/one-million-children-young-parent-experienced-homelessness/ 

Chen, X., Thrane, L., Whitbeck, L. B., & Johnson, K. (2006). Mental disorders, comorbidity, and postrunaway arrests among homeless and runaway adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16(3), 379–402. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/sociologyfacpub/34/ 

Choi, S. K., Wilson, B. D. M., Shelton, J., & Gates, G. J. (2015). Serving our youth 2015: The needs and experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth experiencing homelessness. The Williams Institute with True Colors Fund. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Serving-Our-Youth-Update-Jun-2015.pdf (PDF, 22 pages)

Congressional Research Service. (2019). Runaway and homeless youth. Demographics and programs. https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL33785 

Davies, B. R., & Allen, N. B. (2017). Trauma and homelessness in youth: Psychopathology and intervention. Clinical Psychology Review, 54, 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2017.03.005 

de Sousa, T., Andrichik, A., Prestera, E., Rush, K., Tano, C., & Wheeler, M. (2023). The 2023 annual homelessness assessment report (AHAR) to Congress: Part 1: Point-in-time estimates of homelessness. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Community Planning and Development. https://www.huduser.gov/portal/sites/default/files/pdf/2023-AHAR-Part-1.pdf (PDF, 117 pages)

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. (2019). Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/reports/surveillance/cdc-hiv-surveillance-report-2018-updated-vol-32.pdf (PDF, 123 pages)

Dworsky, A., Gitlow, E., Horwitz, B., & Samuels, G. M. (2019). Missed opportunities: Pathways from foster care to youth homelessness in America. Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/Chapin-Hall_VoYC_Child-Welfare-Brief_2019-FINAL.pdf (PDF, 18 pages)

Dworsky, A., Morton, M. H., & Samuels, G. M. (2018). Missed opportunities: Pregnant and parenting youth experiencing homelessness in America. Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/VoYC-PP-Brief-FINAL.pdf (PDF, 16 pages)

Dworsky, A., Napolitano, L., & Courtney, M. (2013). Homelessness during the transition from foster care to adulthood. American Journal of Public Health, 103, S318–S323. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301455 

Erb-Downward, J., & Nothalf, A. (2022). A way home: Why supporting youth experiencing homelessness is critical in Michigan. University of Michigan. https://sites.fordschool.umich.edu/poverty2021/files/2022/02/PovertySolutions-health-risks-for-Homeless-Youth-PolicyBrief-Feb2022.pdf (PDF, 7 pages)

Flannigan, A., O’Meara, M., & Rajouria, A. (2020). Better data on homelessness needed as young adults with foster care experience transition to adulthood. Child Trends. https://www.childtrends.org/publications/better-data-on-homelessness-needed-as-young-adults-with-foster-care-experience-transition-to-adulthood 

Gubits, D., Spellman, B., Dunton, L., Brown, S., & Wood, M. (2013). Interim report: Family options study. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. https://www.huduser.gov/portal/publications/pdf/HUD_503_Family_Options_Study_Interim_Report_v2.pdf (PDF, 137 pages)

Health Resources and Services Administration. (2023). Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program annual data report 2022. https://ryanwhite.hrsa.gov/data/reports 

Henry, M., Travis, A., de Sousa, T., Marson, J., Prestera, E., & Tano, C. (2023). 2021 annual homelessness assessment report (AHAR) to Congress, part 2: Estimates of homelessness in the United States. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Community Planning and Development. https://www.huduser.gov/portal/sites/default/files/pdf/2021-AHAR-Part-2.pdf (PDF, 114 pages)

Henwood, B. F., Rhoades, H., Redline, B., Dzubur, E., Wenzel, S. (2020). Risk behaviour and access to HIV/AIDS prevention services among formerly homeless young adults living in housing programmes. AIDS Care, 32(11), 1457–1461. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2019.1699643 

Huntington, N., Buckner, J. C., & Bassuk, E. L. (2008). Adaptation in homeless children: An empirical examination using cluster analysis. American Behavioral Scientist, 51, 737–755. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764207311985 

Ingram, E. S., Bridgeland, J. M., Reed, B., & Atwell, M. (n.d.). Hidden in plain sight: Homeless students in America’s public schools. Civic Enterprises & Hart Research Associates. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED572753.pdf (PDF, 64 pages)

Institute for Children, Poverty and Homelessness. (2017). More than a place to sleep: Understanding the health and well-being of homeless high school students. https://www.icphusa.org/reports/homelessstudenthealth/#executive-summary 

Lin, C-H. (2012). Children who run away from foster care: Who are the children and what are the risk factors? Children and Youth Services Review, 34(4), 807–813. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.01.009 

Low, J. A., Hallett, R. E., & Mo, E. (2017). Doubled-up homeless: Comparing educational outcomes with low-income students. Education and Urban Society, 49(9), 795–813. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124516659525 

Mahathey, A., Brown, S., de Sousa, T., Loya, K., Thornton Walker, J., & Santucci, A. (2021). Findings from the Transitional Living Program youth outcomes study (OPRE Report 20221-191). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/opre/findings%20from%20tlp%20yos_september%202021_508_QC.pdf (PDF, 32 pages)

Matarese (2012). Improving outcomes for LGBT youth in out of home care settings: Implications and recommendations for systems of care. Improving emotional and behavioral outcomes for LGBT youth: A guide for professionals, 173-187. 

Middleton, J. S., Gattis, M. N., Frey, L. M., & Sepowitz, D. R. (2018). Youth Experiences Survey (YES): Exploring the scope and complexity of sex trafficking in a sample of youth experiencing homelessness. Journal of Social Service Research, 44(2), 141–157. https://doi.org/10.1080/01488376.2018.1428924 

Moore, H., Astor, R. A., & Benbenishty, R. (2020). Role of school-climate in school-based violence among homeless and non-homeless students: Individual- and school-level analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 102, Article 104378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104378 

Moore, H., Benbenishty, R., Astor, R. A., & Rice, E. (2017). The positive role of school climate on school victimization, depression, and suicidal ideation among school-attending homeless youth. Journal of School Violence, 17(3), 298–310. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2017.1322518 

Morton, M., Dworsky, A., & Patel, S. (2018). LGBTQ young adults experience homelessness at more than twice the rate of peers. Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. https://www.chapinhall.org/research/lgbtq-young-adults-experience-homelessness-at-more-than-twice-the-rate-of-peers/ 

Morton, M. H., Dworsky, A., & Samuels, G. M. (2017). Missed opportunities: Youth homelessness in America. National estimates. Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/ChapinHall_VoYC_NationalReport_Final.pdf (PDF, 16 pages)

Morton, M., Dworsky, A., Samuels, G. M., & Patel, S. (2018a). Missed opportunities: LGBTQ youth homelessness in America. Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/VoYC-LGBTQ-Brief-FINAL.pdf (PDF, 16 pages)

Morton, M., Dworsky, A., Samuels, G. M., & Patel, S. (2018b). Voices of youth count comprehensive report: Youth homelessness in America. Chapin Hall; U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/Voices-of-Youth-Report.pdf (PDF, 314 pages)

Morton, M. H., & Horwitz, B. (2019). Research to impact: Federal actions to prevent and end youth homelessness: Recommendations based on research and a national convening of experts and stakeholders. Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/Federal-actions-to-prevent-and-end-youth-homelessness-final.pdf (PDF, 38 pages)

Morton, M. H., Kugley, S., Epstein, R., & Farrell, A. (2020). Interventions for youth homelessness: A systematic review of effectiveness studies. Children and Youth Services Review, 116, Article 105096. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740920308616 

Morton, M. H., Samuels, G. M., Dworsky, A., & Patel, S. (2018). Missed opportunities: LGBTQ youth homelessness in America. Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/VoYC-LGBTQ-Brief-FINAL.pdf (PDF, 16 pages)

National Alliance to End Homelessness. (n.d.). Family intervention for unaccompanied homeless youth. https://endhomelessness.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/family-intervention-for-unaccompanied-youth.pdf (PDF, 8 pages)

National Center for Homeless Education. (n.d.). Determining eligibility for rights and services under the McKinney-Vento Act. https://doe.sd.gov/title/documents/EligRights.pdf (PDF, 8 pages)

National Center for Homeless Education. (2023). Student homelessness in America: School years 2019-20 to 2021-22. https://nche.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/SY-21-22-EHCY-Data-Summary_FINAL.pdf (PDF, 26 pages)

National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. (n.d.) Child sex trafficking (Risk factors). https://www.missingkids.org/theissues/trafficking#riskfactors 

National Conference of State Legislatures. (2023). Youth homelessness overview. https://www.ncsl.org/human-services/youth-homelessness-overview 

Parpouchi, M., Moniruzzaman, A., & Somers, J. M. (2021). The association between experiencing homeless in childhood or youth and adult housing stability in Housing First. BMC Psychiatry, 21, Article 138. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03142-0 

Pergamit, M. (2010). On the lifetime prevalence of running away from home. Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/28616/412087-On-the-Prevalence-of-Running-Away-from-Home.PDF (PDF, 16 pages)

Pergamit, M., & Ernst, M. (2011). Running away from foster care: Runaway youth’s knowledge and access of services. https://monarchhousing.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/runawayyouth.pdf (PDF, 61 pages)

Pergamit, M., Gelatt, J., Stratford, B., Beckwith, S., & Carver Martin, M. (2016). Family interventions for youth experiencing or at risk of homelessness. Urban Institute. https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/private/pdf/205401/FamilyInterventions.pdf (PDF, 107 pages)

Pilnik, L. (2016). Youth homelessness and juvenile justice: Opportunities for collaboration and impact. Coalition for Juveile Justice. https://www.juvjustice.org/sites/default/files/resource-files/policy%20brief_FINAL.compressed.pdf (PDF, 7 pages)

Poirier, J. M., Francis, K. B., Fisher, S. K., Williams-Washington, K., Goode, T. D., & Jackson, V. H. (2008). Practice brief 1: Providing services and supports for youth who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, intersex, or two-spirit. Washington, DC: National Center for Cultural Competence, Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development. http://nccc.georgetown.edu/documents/lgbtqi2s.pdf (PDF, 8 pages) 

Quimby, E. G., Edidin, J. P., Ganim, Z., Gustafson, E., Hunter, S. J., & Karnik, N. S. (2012). Psychiatric disorders and substance use in homeless youth: A preliminary comparison of San Francisco and Chicago. Behavioral Sciences (Basel), 2(3), 186–194. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4217629/

Runaway and Homeless Youth Training and Technical Assistance Center. (n.d.). Regional meeting frequently asked questions. Family and Youth Services Bureau. https://www.hhs.gov/guidance/sites/default/files/hhs-guidance-documents/FYSB%2520RHY%2520Program%2520FAQs.pdf (PDF, 17 pages)

Samuels, G. M., Cerven, C., Curry, S., Robinson, S. R., & Patel, S. (2019). Missed opportunities in youth pathways through homelessness. Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/ChapinHall_VoYC_Youth-Pathways-FINAL.pdf (PDF, 24 pages)

Samuels, J., Shinn, M., & Buckner, J. C. (2010). Homeless children: Update on research, policy, programs, and opportunities. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. https://aspe.hhs.gov/reports/homeless-children-update-research-policy-programs-opportunities-0  

SchoolHouse Connection & Poverty Solutions at the University of Michigan. (n.d.). The education of children and youth experiencing homelessness: Current trends, challenges, and needs (Fact Sheet). https://schoolhouseconnection.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/FY24-EHCY-Fact-Sheet.pdf (PDF, 4 pages)

Finkelhor, D., Ferreira, B., & Mitchell, K. (2022). National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway and Thrownaway Children (NISMART-4) Law Enforcement Survey – Family Abduction (LES-FA) Pilot Study Report. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/304792.pdf (PDF, 47 pages)

Terry, M. J., Bendi, G., & Patel, N. D. (2010). Healthcare needs of homeless youth in the United States. Journal of Pediatric Sciences, 2(17), 2–12. 

Toro, P. A., Dworsky, A., & Fowler, P. J. (2007). Homeless youth in the United States: Recent research findings and intervention approaches. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/portal/publications/homeless/p6.html 

Trevor Project. (2021). National survey on LGBTQ youth mental health 2021. https://www.thetrevorproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/The-Trevor-Project-National-Survey-Results-2021.pdf (PDF, 20 pages) 

Tucker, J. S., Edelen, M. O., Ellickson, P. L., & Klein, D. J. (2011). Running away from home: A longitudinal study of adolescent risk factors and young adult outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(5), 507–518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9571-0 

University of Nebraska–Lincoln. (2016). Administration for Children and Families, Family and Youth Services Bureau, Street Outreach Program: Data collection study final report. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/fysb/data_collection_study_final_report_street_outreach_program.pdf (PDF, 100 pages)

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (n.d.). Children and youth and HUD’s homeless definition. https://files.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/HUDs-Homeless-Definition-as-it-Relates-to-Children-and-Youth.pdf (PDF, 4 pages)

Voices of Youth Count. (2019). Missed opportunities in youth pathways through homelessness. Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/ChapinHall_VoYC_Youth-Pathways-FINAL.pdf (PDF, 24 pages)

Wainwright, J. J., Beer, L., Tie, Y., Fagan, J. L., Dean, H. D., & Medical Monitoring Project. (2020). Socioeconomic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of persons living with HIV who experience homelessness in the United States, 2015–2016. AIDS and Behavior, 24, 1701–1708. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10461-019-02704-4 

Walker, J. T., Brown, S. R., & Shinn, M. (2016). Adolescent well-being after experiencing family homelessness (Homeless Families Research Brief, OPRE Report No. 2016-42). U.S. Department of Health Human Services, Office of Planning Research, and Evaluation; Abt Associates. https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/private/pdf/205256/adolescents.pdf (PDF, 9 pages)

Walsh, S. M., & Donaldson, R. E. (2010). Invited commentary: National safe place: Meeting the immediate needs of runaway and homeless youth. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 39, 437–445. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9522-9 

Whitbeck, L. B., & Simons, R. L. (1993). A comparison of adaptive strategies and patterns of victimization among homeless adolescents and adults. University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Sociology Department, Faculty Publications. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/sociologyfacpub/112/ 

Yoder, J. R., Bender, K., Thompson, S. J., Ferguson, K. M., & Haffejee, B. (2013). Explaining homeless youths’ criminal justice interactions: Childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets? Community Mental Health Journal, 50, 135–144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-013-9690-7

Other Resources on this Topic


Youth Briefs

How Individualized Education Program (IEP) Transition Planning Makes a Difference for Youth with Disabilities

Youth who receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and especially young adults of transition age, should be involved in planning for life after high school as early as possible and no later than age 16. Transition services should stem from the individual youth’s needs and strengths, ensuring that planning takes into account his or her interests, preferences, and desires for the future.

Youth Transitioning to Adulthood: How Holding Early Leadership Positions Can Make a Difference

Research links early leadership with increased self-efficacy and suggests that leadership can help youth to develop decision making and interpersonal skills that support successes in the workforce and adulthood. In addition, young leaders tend to be more involved in their communities, and have lower dropout rates than their peers. Youth leaders also show considerable benefits for their communities, providing valuable insight into the needs and interests of young people

How Trained Service Professionals and Self-Advocacy Makes a Difference for Youth with Mental Health, Substance Abuse, or Co-occurring Issues

Statistics reflecting the number of youth suffering from mental health, substance abuse, and co-occurring disorders highlight the necessity for schools, families, support staff, and communities to work together to develop targeted, coordinated, and comprehensive transition plans for young people with a history of mental health needs and/or substance abuse.

Young Adults Formerly in Foster Care: Challenges and Solutions

Nearly 30,000 youth aged out of foster care in Fiscal Year 2009, which represents nine percent of the young people involved in the foster care system that year. This transition can be challenging for youth, especially youth who have grown up in the child welfare system.

Coordinating Systems to Support Transition Age Youth with Mental Health Needs

Research has demonstrated that as many as one in five children/youth have a diagnosable mental health disorder. Read about how coordination between public service agencies can improve treatment for these youth.

Civic Engagement Strategies for Transition Age Youth

Civic engagement has the potential to empower young adults, increase their self-determination, and give them the skills and self-confidence they need to enter the workforce. Read about one youth’s experience in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC).

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