Youth who receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and especially young adults of transition age, should be involved in planning for life after high school as early as possible and no later than age 16. Transition services should stem from the individual youth’s needs and strengths, ensuring that planning takes into account his or her interests, preferences, and desires for the future.
Brault, M. W. (2012). Americans with disabilities: 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p70-131.pdf (PDF, 24 pages)
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (2015). People with a disability less likely to have completed a bachelor's degree. The Economics Daily. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2015/people-with-a-disability-less-likely-to-have-completed-a-bachelors-degree.htm
Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare. (2013). Older youth with disabilities in foster care: The prevalence and experience of older youth with disabilities in foster care in Minnesota. University of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://cascw.umn.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/policyreportFINALWEB.pdf (PDF, 4 pages)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Disability inclusion. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/disability-inclusion.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Chronic disease overview. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/overview/
Employer Assistance and Resource Network on Disability Inclusion. (2017). Creating an accessible and welcoming workplace. Retrieved from http://www.askearn.org/topics/creating-an-accessible-and-welcoming-workplace/
Federal Partners in Transition. (2016). What to Know About Youth Transition Services for Students and Youth with Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/transition/products/fpt-fact-sheet-transitionservices-swd-ywd-3-9-2016.pdf (PDF, 4 pages)
Hill, K., & Stenhjem, P. (2006). Youth with disabilities aging out of foster care: Issues and support strategies. Impact, 19(1). Retrieved from https://ici.umn.edu/products/impact/191/over16.html
Honeycutt, T., Lyons, J. A., & Moreno, L. (2014). International efforts to serve youth with disabilities: Lessons for the U.S. disability support system. Washington, DC: Mathematica. Retrieved from http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/disability/drc_intl_youth_ib14-01.pdf (PDF, 6 pages)
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Karmel, T., & Nguyen, N. (2008). Disability and learning outcomes: How much does the disability really matter? Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503404.pdf (PDF, 15 pages)
Kessler, R., Avenevoli, S., Costello, J. E., Georgiades, K., Greif Green, J., Gruber, M., . . . Ries Merikangas, K. (2012). Prevalence, persistence, and sociodemographic correlates of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 372–380.
Lipscomb, S., Haimson, J., Liu, A.Y., Burghardt, J., Johnson, D.R., & Thurlow, M.L. (2017). Preparing for life after high school: The characteristics and experiences of youth in special education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 1: Comparisons with other youth: Full report (NCEE 2017-4016). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20174016/pdf/20174016.pdf (PDF, 271 pages)
Morningstar, M. E., Lattin, D. L., & Sarkesian, S. (2009). It’s more than just the law: People make it happen. Transition Coalition.
Muller, E. (2011). Reentry programs for students with disabilities in the juvenile justice system: Four state approaches. Retrieved from https://heath.gwu.edu/files/downloads/reentryprogsforswdinthejuvenilejusticesystem_fourstateapproaches.pdf (PDF, 12 pages)
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National Center for Homeless Education. (2015). Supporting homeless children and youth with disabilities: Legislative provisions in the Mckinney-Vento Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Retrieved from https://nche.ed.gov/downloads/briefs/idea.pdf (PDF, 13 pages)
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National Transition Center on Transition. (2016). Age Appropriate Transition Assessment Toolkit Fourth Edition. University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Retrieved from http://www.transitionta.org/system/files/toolkitassessment/AgeAppropriateTransitionAssessmentToolkit2016_COMPLETE_11_21_16.pdf (PDF, 64 pages)
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Wilkins, J., & Huckabee, S. (2014). A literature map of dropout prevention interventions for students with disabilities. Clemson, SC: National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities, Clemson University. Retrieved from http://www.ndpc-sd.org/documents/wilkins-huckabee-lit-review.pdf (PDF, 78 pages)
Other Resources on this Topic
Tools & Guides
Webinars & Presentations
Research links early leadership with increased self-efficacy and suggests that leadership can help youth to develop decision making and interpersonal skills that support successes in the workforce and adulthood. In addition, young leaders tend to be more involved in their communities, and have lower dropout rates than their peers. Youth leaders also show considerable benefits for their communities, providing valuable insight into the needs and interests of young people
Statistics reflecting the number of youth suffering from mental health, substance abuse, and co-occurring disorders highlight the necessity for schools, families, support staff, and communities to work together to develop targeted, coordinated, and comprehensive transition plans for young people with a history of mental health needs and/or substance abuse.
Nearly 30,000 youth aged out of foster care in Fiscal Year 2009, which represents nine percent of the young people involved in the foster care system that year. This transition can be challenging for youth, especially youth who have grown up in the child welfare system.
Research has demonstrated that as many as one in five children/youth have a diagnosable mental health disorder. Read about how coordination between public service agencies can improve treatment for these youth.
Civic engagement has the potential to empower young adults, increase their self-determination, and give them the skills and self-confidence they need to enter the workforce. Read about one youth’s experience in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC).