Other Youth Topics


  1. Youth Topics
  2. Civic Engagement
  3. References


American Psychological Association. (2010). Civic engagement. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/education/undergrad/civic-engagement.aspx

Baumann, P. (2014). 50-state comparison: State policies for service-learning. Education Commission of the States. Retrieved from http://www.ecs.org/state-policies-for-service-learning/

Billig, S., & Sandel, K. (2003). Colorado learn and serve: An evaluation report. Denver, CO: RMC Research Corporation.

Billig, S., Root, S., & Jesse, D. (2005). The impact of participation in service-learning on high school students’ civic engagement. Denver, CO: RMC Research Corporation.

Bobek, D. Zaff, J., Li, Y., & Lerner, R. M. (2009). Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components of civic action: Towards an integrated measure of civic engagement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 615-627.

Brill, C. L. (1994). The effects of participation in service-learning on adolescents with disabilities. Journal of Adolescence, 17, 369–380.

Chung, A. N. (1997). Service as a strategy in out-of-school time: A how-to manual. Washington, DC: AmeriCorps.

College of Southern Maryland. (2010). Service-learning vs. volunteering.

AmeriCorps. (n.d.a). College Students: Trends and Highlights Overview. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.nationalservice.gov/vcla/demographic/college-students

AmeriCorps. (n.d.b). Teenagers: Trends and Highlights Overview. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.nationalservice.gov/vcla/demographic/teenagers

AmeriCorps. (2005). Building active citizens: The role of social institutions in teen volunteering. Brief 1 in the Youth Helping America series. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.nationalservice.gov/pdf/05_1130_LSA_YHA_study.pdf (PDF, 24 pages)

AmeriCorps. (2006). Educating for active citizenship: Service-learning, school-based service, and youth civic engagement. Brief 2 in the Youth Helping America Series. Washington, DC: Author.

AmeriCorps. Presidential Council on Service and Civic Participation. (2010a). Youth engaged in service. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.presidentialserviceawards.gov/yes/index.html

AmeriCorps. Presidential Council on Service and Civic Participation. (2010b). Engaging families in service: Why it matters. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.search-institute.org/downloadable/2009-Roehlkepartain-Families-SL-NSLC.pdf (PDF, 2 pages)

AmeriCorps. Presidential Council on Service and Civic Participation. (2010c). Recruiting youth from diverse backgrounds: Reaching them where they are. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.nationalservice.gov/resources/recruitment/encorps/recruiting-diversity

AmeriCorps. Presidential Council on Service and Civic Participation. (2010d). Why serve? Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.presidentialserviceawards.gov/yes/why_serve_2.html

AmeriCorps. (2013). Volunteering as a Pathway to Employment: Does Volunteering Increase Odds of Finding a Job for the Out of Work? Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.nationalservice.gov/impact-our-nation/evidence-exchange/Volunteering-Pathway-Employment

AmeriCorps. (2016). AmeriCorps Alumni Outcomes Study. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.nationalservice.gov/impact-our-nation/evidence-exchange/AmeriCorps-Alumni-Outcomes

Dávila, A., & Mora, M.T. (2007). An assessment of civic engagement and educational attainment. College Park, MD: The Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning & Engagement (CIRCLE). Retrieved from http://www.civicyouth.org/PopUps/FactSheets/FS_Mora.Davila.pdf (PDF, 4 Pages)

Deakin Crick, R., Taylor, M., Tew, M., Samuel, E., Durant, K., & Ritchie, S. (2005). A systematic review of the impact of citizenship education on student learning and achievement. In Research in Education Library. London: EPPI‑Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education.

Dymond, S. K., Renzaglia, A., & Chun, E. (2007). Elements of effective high school service-learning programs that include students with and without disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 28(4), 227–243.

Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act of 2009 Pub L. 111-13.

Erlich, T. (2000). Civic responsibility and higher education. Westport, CT: Oryx.

Frey, L. M. (2003, May/June). Abundant beautification: An effective service-learning project for students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(5), 66–75.

Hathi, S., & Bhaerman, B. (n.d). Effective practices for engaging at-risk youth in service: Effective practices for engaging at-risk youth in service. Youth Service America. 

Irby, M., Ferber, T., & Pittman, K. (with Tolman, J., & Yohalem, N.). (2001). Youth action: Youth contributing to communities, communities supporting youth. Washington, DC: Forum for Youth Investment.

Krajewski, J., & Callahan, J. (1998). Service-learning: A strategy for vocational training of young adults with special needs. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 21(1), 34–38.

Leming, J. S. (2001). Integrating a structured ethical reflection curriculum into high school community service experiences: Impact on students’ sociomoral development. Adolescence, 36, 33–45.

Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., Phelps, E., et al. (2008). The positive development of youth technical report. The 4‑H study of positive youth development: Report of the findings from the first four waves of data collection: 2002–2003, 2003–2004, 2004–2005, and 2005–2006. Medford, MA: Tufts University.

Lopez, M.H., Levine, P., Both, D., Kiesa, A., Kirby, E., & Marcelo, K. (2006). The 2006 civic and political health of the nation: A detailed look at how youth participate in politics and communities. College Park, MD: Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE). Retrieved from http://www.civicyouth.org/PopUps/2006_CPHS_Report_update.pdf (PDF, 37 Pages)

Melchior, A. (1998). National evaluation of Learn and Serve America school and community-based programs: Final report. Washington, DC: AmeriCorps.

Michelsen, E., Zaff, J. F., & Hair, E. C. (2002). Civic engagement programs and youth development: A synthesis. Washington, DC: Child Trends. Mohamed, I. A. (2001). Notes from a program officer: The case for youth engagement. In I. Mohamed & W. Wheeler (Eds.), Broadening the bounds of youth development: Youth as engaged citizens. Takoma Park, MD: Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development.

Mohamed, I. A., & Wheeler, W. (Eds.). (2001). Broadening the bounds of youth development: Youth as engaged citizens. Takoma Park, MD: Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development.

National and Community Service Act of 1990 amended through P.L. 106-170, 42 U.S.C.A. 12501 et seq.

Naughton, S. (2000). Youth and communities helping each other: Community-based organizations using service-learning as a strategy during out-of-school time. Washington, DC: Corporation for National Service.

Ohn, J., & Wade, R. (2009). Community service-learning as a group inquiry project: Elementary and middle school Civic Connections teachers' practices of integrating historical inquiry in community service-learning. Social Studies, 100(5), 200–211.

RMC Research Corporation. (2007). Why districts, schools, and classrooms should practice service-learning. Scotts Valley, CA: National Service-Learning Clearinghouse.

RMC Research Corporation. (2008). Standards and indicators for effective service-learning practice. Scotts Valley, CA: National Service-Learning Clearinghouse.

Rockwell, S. (2001). Service-learning: Barriers, benefits and models of excellence. Beyond Behavior, 10(3), 16–21.

Roehlkepartain, E. C. (1995). Everyone wins when youth serve. Washington, DC: Points of Light Foundation.

Roehlkepartain, E. C. (2007). Benefits of community-based service-learning. Scotts Valley, CA: National Service-Learning Clearinghouse.

Scales, P. C., Blyth, D. A., Berkas, T. H., & Kielsmeier, J. C. (2000). The effects of service-learning on middle school students’ social responsibility and academic success. Journal of Early Adolescence, 20(3), 332–358.

Shumer, R. (2005). Service-learning research: What have we learned from the past. In Growing to greatness: The state of service-learning report (pp. 48–53). St. Paul, MN: National Youth Leadership Council.

Skinner, R., & Chapman, C. (1999). Service-learning and community service in K–12 public schools: Statistics in brief. Education Statistics Quarterly, 1(4), 51–59.

Spring, K., Dietz, N., & Grimm, R. Jr. (2007). Leveling the path to participation: Volunteering and civic engagement among youth from disadvantaged circumstances. Washington, DC: AmeriCorps. Retrieved from http://www.nationalservice.gov/pdf/07_0406_disad_youth.pdf (PDF, 32 pages)

Spring, K., Grimm, R., & Dietz, N. (2009). Community service and service-learning in America’s schools, 2008. Washington, DC: AmeriCorps, Office of Research and Policy Development.

Stone, B. & Edwards, H. (2008). National framework for 4-H Volunteerism. National 4-H Headquarters, Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Services, United States Department of Agriculture.

Troppe, C., & Michel, J. (2002). Engaging youth in lifelong service: Findings and recommendations for encouraging a tradition of voluntary action among America’s youth. Independent Sector. Retrieved from http://www.independentsector.org/uploads/Resources/engaging_youth.pdf (PDF, 40 pages)

Urban Institute. (2004). Volunteer management capacity in America’s charities and congregations: A briefing report. Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410963_VolunteerManagment.pdf (PDF, 24 pages)

U.S. Department of Education (2012). Advancing civic learning and engagement in democracy: A road map and call to action. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/sites/default/files/road-map-call-to-action.pdf (PDF, 40 pages)

Yamauchi, L., Billig, S., Meyer, S., & Hofschire, L. (2006). Student outcomes associated with service-learning in a culturally relevant high school program. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 32(1/2), 149–164.

Zaff, J., & Lerner, R. (2010). Service-learning promotes positive youth development in high school. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(5), 21–23.

Other Resources on this Topic


Collaboration Profiles


Youth Briefs

How Individualized Education Program (IEP) Transition Planning Makes a Difference for Youth with Disabilities

Youth who receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and especially young adults of transition age, should be involved in planning for life after high school as early as possible and no later than age 16. Transition services should stem from the individual youth’s needs and strengths, ensuring that planning takes into account his or her interests, preferences, and desires for the future.

Youth Transitioning to Adulthood: How Holding Early Leadership Positions Can Make a Difference

Research links early leadership with increased self-efficacy and suggests that leadership can help youth to develop decision making and interpersonal skills that support successes in the workforce and adulthood. In addition, young leaders tend to be more involved in their communities, and have lower dropout rates than their peers. Youth leaders also show considerable benefits for their communities, providing valuable insight into the needs and interests of young people

How Trained Service Professionals and Self-Advocacy Makes a Difference for Youth with Mental Health, Substance Abuse, or Co-occurring Issues

Statistics reflecting the number of youth suffering from mental health, substance abuse, and co-occurring disorders highlight the necessity for schools, families, support staff, and communities to work together to develop targeted, coordinated, and comprehensive transition plans for young people with a history of mental health needs and/or substance abuse.

Young Adults Formerly in Foster Care: Challenges and Solutions

Nearly 30,000 youth aged out of foster care in Fiscal Year 2009, which represents nine percent of the young people involved in the foster care system that year. This transition can be challenging for youth, especially youth who have grown up in the child welfare system.

Coordinating Systems to Support Transition Age Youth with Mental Health Needs

Research has demonstrated that as many as one in five children/youth have a diagnosable mental health disorder. Read about how coordination between public service agencies can improve treatment for these youth.

Civic Engagement Strategies for Transition Age Youth

Civic engagement has the potential to empower young adults, increase their self-determination, and give them the skills and self-confidence they need to enter the workforce. Read about one youth’s experience in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC).