Youth who receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and especially young adults of transition age, should be involved in planning for life after high school as early as possible and no later than age 16. Transition services should stem from the individual youth’s needs and strengths, ensuring that planning takes into account his or her interests, preferences, and desires for the future.
Allensworth, E., & Easton, J. Q. (2007). What matters for staying on-track and graduating in Chicago Public High Schools: A close look at course grades, failures, and attendance in the freshman year. Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago.
America’s Promise Alliance. (2007). Every promise, every child: Turning failure into action. Retrieved from http://www.americaspromise.org/resource/every-child-every-promise-turning-failure-action-0
Balfanz, R., Bridgeland, J. M., Bruce, M., & Hornig Fox, J. (2013). Building a grad nation: Progress and challenge in ending the high school dropout epidemic. Retrieved from http://www.americaspromise.org/Our-Work/Grad-Nation/Building-a-Grad-Nation.aspx
Bloom, D., Gardenhire-Crooks, A., & Mandsager, C. (2009). Reengaging high school dropouts: Early results of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program evaluation. New York, NY: MDRC. Received from http://www.jobsfirstnyc.org/docs/Reengaging%20High%20School%20Dropouts.pdf (PDF, 102 pages)
CareerOneStop. (n.d.). Why learn about me? Retrieved from http://www.careeronestop.org/ExploreCareers/SelfAssessments/WhyLearnAboutMe.aspx
Carnevale, A., Smith, N., & Strohl, J. (2010). Help wanted: Projections of jobs and education requirements through 2018. Washington, DC: Georgetown University, Center for Education and Workforce. Retrieved from https://cew.georgetown.edu/report/help-wanted/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2012). Are you a teen worker? Updated. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2012-130/default.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2013). Young worker safety and health. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/youth/
Child Trends. (2010). Youth employment. Retrieved from http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org/?q=node/373
The Conference Board, Corporate Voices for Working Families, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, & Society for Human Resource Management. (2006). Are they really ready to work? Employers’ perspectives on the basic knowledge and applied skills of new entrants to the 21st century U.S. workforce. New York, NY: Authors. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09-29-06.pdf (PDF, 64 pages)
Cortiella, C. (2011). The state of learning disabilities. New York, NY: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://gradnation.org/sites/default/files/The%20State%20of%20Learning%20Disabilities.pdf (PDF, 37 pages)
Crosby, O. (2002). Apprenticeships: Career training, credentials—and a paycheck in your pocket. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/careeroutlook/2002/summer/art01.pdf (PDF, 20 pages)
Deloitte Consulting LLP. (2005). 2005 skills gap report—A survey of the American manufacturing workforce. Retrieved from http://www.doleta.gov/wired/files/us_mfg_talent_management.pdf (PDF, 32 pages)
DuBois, D. L., & Karcher, M. J. (2005). Youth mentoring: Theory, research, practice. In D. L. DuBois & M. J. Karcher (Eds.), Handbook of youth mentoring (pp. 1‒13). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
Dynarski, M., Clarke, L., Cobb, B., Finn, J., Rumberger, R., & Smink, J. (2008). Dropout prevention: A practice guide (NCEE 2008–4025). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Estes, C. R., Jackson, L. L., & Castillo, D. N. (2010). Occupational injuries and deaths among younger workers—United States, 1998‒2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 59(15), 449‒455. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5915a2.htm
Heckman, J. J., & LaFontaine, P. A. (2007). The American high school graduation rate: Trends and levels. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w13670.pdf (PDF, 61 pages)
Hendricks, D. J., Batiste, L., & Hirsh, A. (2005). Cost and effectiveness of accommodations in the workplace: Preliminary results of a nationwide study. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Disability Employment Policy, Job Accommodation Network.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 2004 20 U.S.C. 1401(34) and 34 CFR §300.43(a). Public Law 108-446—108th Congress. Retrieved from http://idea.ed.gov/download/statute.html
Job Corps. (2012). Performance results for program year 2011: Aggregate and individual. Retrieved from http://www.jobcorps.gov/AboutJobCorps/performance_planning/omsdata2011.aspx
Jones, E. (2006). Internships: Previewing a profession. Occupational Outlook Quarterly. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/careeroutlook/2006/summer/art02.pdf (PDF, 3 pages)
Joseph, M., Spake, D. F., Grantham K. D., & Stone, G. W. (2008). A critical evaluation of the service learning experience: Implications for higher education. Journal of Learning in Higher Education, 4(1), 53‒58.
Milne, L., Gabb, R., & Leihy, P. (2008). Good practice in service learning. Melbourne, Australia: Victoria University, Postcompulsory Education Centre. Retrieved from http://tls.vu.edu.au/portal/site/research/resources/Service%20Learning%20Report%20PEC%202008.pdf (PDF, 32 pages)
Newman, L., Wagner, M., Cameto, R., & Knokey, A. (2009). The post-high school outcomes of youth with disabilities up to 4 years after high school: A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncser/pdf/20093017.pdf (PDF, 202 pages)
Partnership for 21st Century Skills, Association for Career and Technical Education, and the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium. (2010). Up to the challenge: The role of career and technical education and 21st century skills in college and career readiness. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/CTE_Oct2010.pdf (PDF, 40 pages)
Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). (1992). Learning a living: A blueprint for high performance. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/lal/lal.pdf (PDF, 102 pages)
Synder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2013). Digest of education statistics, 2012. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2014015
Tienda, M., & Ahituv, A. (1996). “Ethnic Differences in School Departure”, Of Heart and Mind, (Editors: Garth Mangum and Stephen Mangum), W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, Kalamazoo. pp. 93-110.
Timmons, J., Mack, M., Sims, A., Hare, R., & Wills, J. (2006). Paving the way to work: A guide to career-focused mentoring for youth with disabilities. Washington, DC: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth, Institute for Educational Leadership. Retrieved from http://www.ncwd-youth.info/assets/guides/mentoring/Mentoring_Guide-complete.pdf (PDF, 124 pages)
U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. (2009). High school transcript study (HSTS). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/ctes/tables/h123.asp
U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2001). Americans with Disability Act: Questions and answers. Retrieved from http://www.ada.gov/qandaeng.htm
U.S. Department of Labor (2010). Apprentices. Retrieved from http://www.doleta.gov/oa/apprentices.cfm
U.S. Department of Labor. (n.d.a). Child labor. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/whd/childlabor.htm
U.S. Department of Labor. (n.d.b). FLSA―child labor rules advisor. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/elaws/esa/flsa/cl/screen2.asp
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013a). America’s youth at 25: School enrollment, number of jobs held and labor market activity: Results from a longitudinal survey. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/nlsyth_03012013.pdf (PDF, 11 pages)
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013b). Employment and unemployment among youth summary. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/youth.nr0.htm
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013c). Employment projections. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm
U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Disability Employment Policy. (2010). Teaching soft skills through workplace simulations in classroom settings. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/odep/documents/TeachingSoftSkills.pdf (PDF, 9 pages)
U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Disability Employment Policy. (2011a). Disability employment policy resources by topic: Youth in transition apprenticeships. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/odep/topics/youth/Apprenticeship.htm
U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Disability Employment Policy. (2011b). Soft skills: The competitive edge. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/odep/topics/youth/SoftSkills.htm
U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Disability Employment Policy. (2013). Youth employment rate. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/odep/categories/youth/youthemployment.htm
U.S. Department of Labor, Youth Rules! Preparing a 21st Century Workforce. (n.d.). State laws. Retrieved from http://www.youthrules.dol.gov/law-library/state-laws/index.htm
U.S. Office of Personnel Management. (2012). Hiring authorities: Students & recent graduates. Retrieved from http://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/hiring-authorities/students-recent-graduates/#url=Overview
Warren, J. R., & Halpern-Manners, A. (2007). Is the glass emptying or filling up? Reconciling divergent trends in high school completion and dropout. Educational Researcher, 36(6), 335‒343.
YouthBuild USA. (n.d.). Programs. Retrieved from https://youthbuild.org/youthbuild-programs
Other Resources on this Topic
Tools & Guides
Videos & Podcasts
Research links early leadership with increased self-efficacy and suggests that leadership can help youth to develop decision making and interpersonal skills that support successes in the workforce and adulthood. In addition, young leaders tend to be more involved in their communities, and have lower dropout rates than their peers. Youth leaders also show considerable benefits for their communities, providing valuable insight into the needs and interests of young people
Statistics reflecting the number of youth suffering from mental health, substance abuse, and co-occurring disorders highlight the necessity for schools, families, support staff, and communities to work together to develop targeted, coordinated, and comprehensive transition plans for young people with a history of mental health needs and/or substance abuse.
Nearly 30,000 youth aged out of foster care in Fiscal Year 2009, which represents nine percent of the young people involved in the foster care system that year. This transition can be challenging for youth, especially youth who have grown up in the child welfare system.
Research has demonstrated that as many as one in five children/youth have a diagnosable mental health disorder. Read about how coordination between public service agencies can improve treatment for these youth.
Civic engagement has the potential to empower young adults, increase their self-determination, and give them the skills and self-confidence they need to enter the workforce. Read about one youth’s experience in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC).