Other Youth Topics


Alberts, A. E., Chase, P., Naudeau, S., Phelps, E., & Lerner, R. (2006). Qualitative and quantitative assessments of thriving and contribution in early adolescence: Findings from the 4-H study of positive youth development. Journal of Youth Development, 1(2).

Bandy, T., & Moore, K.A. (2009). Non-participation of children and adolescents in out-of-school time programs: Child, family and neighborhood factors. (Pub. #2009-39). Washington, D.C.: Child Trends. Retrieved from http://www.caction.org/CAN-Research/Reports/2009/Child_Trends-2009_07_22_RB_Nonparticipation.pdf (PDF, 6 pages)

Boynton-Jarrett, R., Hair, E., & Zuckerman, B. (2013). Turbulent times: Effects of turbulence and violence exposure in adolescence on high school completion, health risk behavior, and mental health in young adulthood. Social Science & Medicine, 95, 77–86.

Bull, S. S., Levine, D. K., Black, S. R., Schmiege, S. J., & Santelli, J. (2012). Social media-delivered sexual health intervention: A cluster randomized control trial. American Journal of Prevention Medicine, 43(5), 467–474.

DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., Harrington, K. F., Lang, D. L., Davies, S. L., Hook, E. W., . . . Robillard, A. (2004). Efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention for African American adolescent girls: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 292(2), 171–179.

DuBois, D. L., Portillo, N., Rhodes, J. E., Silverthorn, N., & Valentine, J. C. (2011). How effective are mentoring programs for youth? A systematic assessment of the evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 12(2), 57–91.

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 474–501.

Eccles, J. (2011). Community-based programs for youth. Presented at National Academies of Science Conference: 10-year Follow-Up to “Community Programs to Promote Youth Development.”

Eccles J. S., & Gootman J. A. (Eds.). (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Gavin, L., Catalano, R., David-Ferdon, C., Gloppen, K., & Markham, C. (2009). A review of positive youth development programs that promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, S11.

Gavin, L. E., Catalano, R. F., David-Ferdon, C., Gloppen, K. M., & Markham, C. M. (2010). A review of positive youth development programs that promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(3), S75–S91.

Kegler, M., Young, K., Marshall, L., Bui, D., & Rodine, S. (2005). Positive youth development linked with prevention in a Vietnamese-American community: Successes, challenges, and lessons learned. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 69-79.

Kliewer, W., & Murrelle, L. (2007). Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: Findings from a study in selected Central American countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40, 448-455.

Lerner, R. M. (2004). Liberty: Thriving and civic engagement among America's youth. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. F., & Phelps, E. (2008). Wave of the future: The first five years of the 4-H study of positive youth development. Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development. Medford, MA: Tufts University.

Lerner, R. M., & Lerner, J. V. (2013). The positive development of youth: Comprehensive findings from the 4-H study of positive youth development. Medford, MA: Tufts University, Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development. Retrieved from http://www.4-h.org/about/youth-development-research/positive-youth-development-study/

Maslow, G. R., & Chung, R. J. (2013). Systematic review of positive youth development programs for adolescents with chronic illness. Pediatrics, 131(5). Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/131/5/e1605

McConachie, H., Huq, S., Munir, S., Ferdous, S., Zaman, S., & Khan, N. Z. (2000). A randomized controlled trial of alternative modes of service provision to young children with cerebral palsy in Bangladesh. The Journal of Pediatrics, 137(6), 769–776.

Moran, J. R., & Reaman, J. A. (2002). Critical issues for substance abuse prevention targeting American Indian youth. Journal of Primary Prevention, 22, 201–233.

National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP). (2007). Project Venture. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA’s) National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices.

Pittman, K. (1999). Youth Today: The power of engagement. Forum for Youth Engagement. Retrieved from www.forumforyouthinvestment.org/node/500

Pittman, K., Irby, M., & Ferber, T. (2001). Unfinished business: Further reflections on a decade of promoting youth development. In P.L. Benson and K.J. Pittman (Eds.), Trends in youth development: Visions, realities and challenges. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Rhodes, J. (2005). Research Corner: Mentoring immigrant youth. Boston, MA: National Mentoring Partnership. Retrieved from http://www.mentoring.org/downloads/mentoring_1318.pdf (PDF, 6 pages)

Roth, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). What do adolescents need for healthy development: Implications for youth policy. Social Policy Report 14(1), 3-19.

Walters, D., Zanghi, M., Ansell, D., Armstrong, E., & Sutter, K. (2011). Transition planning with adolescents: A review of principles and practices across systems. Tulsa, OK: National Resource Center for Youth Development and the University of Southern Maine. Retrieved from http://www.jimcaseyyouth.org/sites/default/files/documents/transition-planning-with-adolescents.pdf (PDF, 41 pages)

Wong, K., & Lee, T. (2005). Professional discourse of social workers working with at-risk young people in Hong Kong: Risk or resilience. In M. Ungar (Ed.), Handbook for working with children and youth: Pathways to resilience across cultures and contexts (pp. 313-327). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

World Development Reports. (2007). World Development Report 2007. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2007/Resources/1489782-1158107976655/overview.pdf (PDF, 23 pages)

Yudin, M. (2013). Keeping students with disabilities safe from bullying. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/blog/2013/08/keeping-students-with-disabilities-safe-frombullying/

Zimmerman, M., & Arunkumar, R. (1994). Resiliency research: Implications for school and policy (Social Policy Report, 8). Ann Arbor, MI: Society for Research on Child Development.

Additional References from Positive Youth Development Literature

America's Promise (2006). Every child, every promise: Turning failure into action. Washington, D.C.: America's Promise. Retrieved from http://www.americaspromise.org/resource/every-child-every-promise-turning-failure-action-0

Baete Kenyon, D., & Hanson, J. D. (2012). Incorporating traditional culture into positive youth development programs with American Indian/Alaska Native Youth. Child Development Perspectives, 6(3), 272–279.

Benard, B. (1991). Fostering resiliency in kids: Protective factors in the family, school, and community. Portland, OR: Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

Benson, P. (1997). All kids are our kids: What communities must do to raise caring and responsible children and adolescents. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Hamilton, S. F., & Sesma, A., Jr. (2006). Positive youth development: Theory, research and application.In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol I: Theoretical models of human development,  (pp. 894-941). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Blum, R.W., & Ireland, M. (2004). Reducing risk, increasing protective factors: Findings from the Caribbean Youth Health Survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 493-500.

Bradshaw, C., Brown, J. S., & Hamilton, S. F. (2008). Bridging positive youth development and mental health services for youth with serious behavior problems. Child Youth Care Forum, 37, 209–226.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2004). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Camino, L. (2005). Pitfalls and promising practices of youth-adult partnerships: An evaluator's reflections. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(1), 75-85.

Camino, L. A. (2000). Youth-adult partnerships: Entering new territory in community work and research. Applied Developmental Science, 4, 11-20.

Camino, L., & Zeldin, S. (2002). From periphery to center: Pathways for youth civic engagement in the day-to-day life of communities. Applied Developmental Science, 6(4), 213-220.

Carnegie Corporation of New York (1992). A matter of time: Risk and opportunity in the non- school hours. New York, NY: Carnegie Corporation.

Cargo, M., Grams, G. D., Ottoson, J. M., Ward, P., & Green, L. W. (2003). Empowerment as fostering positive youth development and citizenship. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27, 66-79.

Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczack, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 98-124.

Catalano, R. F., Hawkins J. D., Berglund, M. L., Pollard, J. A., & Arthur, M. W. (2002). Prevention science and positive youth development: Competitive or cooperative frameworks? Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(6), 230-239.

Choi, Y., Harachi, T. W., Gillmore, M. R., & Catalano, R. F. (2005). Applicability of the social development model to urban ethnic minority youth: Examining the relationship between external constraints, family socialization, and problem behaviors. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15(4), 505-534.

Damon, W. (2004). What is positive youth development? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 591(1), 13-24.

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(3-4), 294–309.

Evans, A. B., Banerjee, M., Meyer, R., Aldana, A., Foust, M., & Rowley, S. (2012). Racial socialization as a mechanism for positive development among African American youth. Child Development Perspectives, 6(3), 251–257.

Flanagan, C. A., & Faison, N. (2001). Youth civic development: Implications of research for social policy and programs. Social Policy Report, 15(1).

Flanagan, C. A., & Van Horn, B. (2003). Youth civic engagement: A logical next step in community youth development. In Villarruel, F. A., Perkins, D. F., Borden, L. M., & Keith, J. G. (Eds.), Community youth development: Programs, policies, and practices (pp. 273–296). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Fredericks, J. A., & Simpkins, S. D. (2012). Promoting positive youth development through organized after-school activities: Taking a closer look at participation of ethnic minority youth. Child Development Perspectives, 6(3), 280–287.

Gambone, M. A., & Connell, J. P. (2004). The community action framework for youth development. The Prevention Researcher, 11(2), 17-20.

Gavin, L. E., Catalano, R. F., David-Ferdon, C., Gloppen, K. M., & Markham, C. M. (2010). A review of positive youth development programs that promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(3), S75–S91.

Ginsburg, M. T. (2007). Viewing our adolescent patients through a positive lens. Contemporary pediatrics, 24(1), 65-76.

Gressley, K., Tessman, K., Hall, L., & Parrott, A. (2009). Essential elements of the 4-H experience: Overview. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Arizona Cooperative Extension. Retrieved from http://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/family/az1495.pdf (PDF, 4 pages)

Heinze, H. J., Hernandez Jozefowicz, D. M., & Toro, P. A. (2010). Taking the youth perspective: Assessment of program characteristics that promote positive development in homeless and at-risk youth. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(10), 1365–1372.

Holt, N. L., & Neely, K. C. (2011). Positive youth development through sport: A review. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte, 6(2), 299–316.

Jones, K. R. (2006). Relationships matter: A mixed methods evaluation of youth and adults working together as partners. Journal of Youth Development, 1(2).

Jones, K. R. (2005). Positive youth development. Cooperative Extension Service. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky.

Jones, K., Byer, K., & Zeldin, S. (2008). Youth-adult partnerships in community decision- making: An evaluation of five state 4-H youth in governance programs. Chevy Chase, MD: National 4-H Council.

Jones, K. R., & Perkins, D. F. (2006). Youth and adult perceptions of their relationships within community-based youth programs. Youth and Society, 38(1), 90-109.

Kress, C. (2004). The eight essential elements of 4-H. Retrieved from http://www.4-h.org/resource-library/professional-development-learning/4-h-youth-development/youth-development/essential-elements/

Larson, R. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55, 170-183.

Leblanc, J. C., Talbot, P. J., & Craig, W. M. (2005). Psychosocial health in youth: An international perspective. In M. Ungar (Ed.), Handbook for working with children and youth: Pathways to resilience across cultures and contexts (pp. 165-188). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Lerner, R. M. (2005). Promoting positive youth development: Theoretical and empirical bases. Retrieved from http://ase.tufts.edu/iaryd/documents/pubPromotingPositive.pdf (PDF, 92 pages)

Lerner, R. M. (1995). America's youth in crisis: Challenges and options for programs and policies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lerner, R. M., & Castellino, D. R. (2002). Contemporary developmental theory and adolescence: Developmental systems and applied developmental science. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 122–135.

Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., Lewin-Bizan, S., Bowers, E. P., Boyd, M. J., Mueller, M. K., Napolitano, C. M. (2011). Positive youth development: Processes, programs, and problematics. Journal of Youth Development, 6(3).

Lerner, J. V., Bowers, E. P., Minor, K., Lewin-Bizan, S., Boyd, M. J., Mueller, M. K., . . . Lerner, R. M. (2012). Positive youth development: Processes, philosophies, and programs. In R. M. Lerner, M. A. Easterbrooks, & J. Mistry (Eds.), Handbook of psychology, volume 6: Developmental psychology (2nd ed.) (pp. 365–392). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Lubans, D. R., Plotnikoff, R. C., & Lubans, N. J. (2012). Review: A systematic review of the impact of physical activity programmes on social and emotional well-being in at-risk youth. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17(1), 2–13.

MacFarlane, E., Chauvern, L. M., & Thompkins, A. C. (2013). Promoting healthy development among adolescent girls: A mixed-methods evaluation of the HERstory Program. Journal of Youth Development, 8(1).

Masten, A. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227-238.

Pittman K., Irby M., Tolman J., Yohalem N., & Ferber T. (2001). Preventing problems, promoting development, encouraging engagement: Competing priorities or inseparable goals? Forum for Youth Investment. Retrieved from http://www.forumforyouthinvestment.org/node/105

Pollard, J. A., & Hawkins, J. D. (1999). Risk and protection: Are both necessary to understand diverse behavioral outcomes in adolescence? Social Work Research, 23(3), 145-158.

Scales, P. C., & Leffert, N. (1999). Developmental assets: A synthesis of the scientific research on adolescent development. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.

Schwartz, S. J., Phelps, E., Lerner, J. V., Huang, S., Brown, H., & Lewin-Bizan, S. (2010). Promotion as prevention: Positive youth development as protective against tobacco, alcohol, illicit drug, and sex initiation. Applied Developmental Science, 14(4), 197–211.

Search Institute (1995). Essentials of asset building: A curriculum for trainers – Everyone's an asset builder. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.

Shek, D. T., & Yu, L. (2011). A review of validated youth prevention and positive youth development programs in Asia. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 23(4), 317–324.

Sipe, C. L., & Gambone, M. A. (1998). Support for youth: A profile of three communities. Philadelphia, PA: Public Private Ventures.

Tebes, J. K., Feinn, R., Vanderploeg, J. J., Chinman, M. J., Shepard, J., Brabham, T., Genovese, M., & Connell, C. (2007). Impact of a positive youth development program in urban after-school settings on the prevention of adolescent substance use. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 239-247.

Tolan, P. H. (1996). How resilient is the concept of resilience? Community psychologist, 29, 12-15.

United States Agency for International Development. (2010). Program evaluation executive summary: Youth development competencies program. Retrieved from http://www.irex.org/sites/default/files/YDCP Evaluation Executive Summary.pdf (PDF, 8 pages)

Villarruel, F. A., Perkins, D. F., Borden, L. M., & Keith, J. G. (2003). Community youth development: Practice, policy and research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

W.T. Grant Foundation (1988). The forgotten half: Pathways to success for America's youth and young families. New York, NY: W.T. Grant Foundation.

Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Youniss, J., McLellan, J. A., & Yates, M. (1997). What we know about engendering civic identity. American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 620-631.

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Zeldin, S. (2004). Youth as agents of adult and community development: Mapping the processes and outcomes of youth engaged in organizational governance. Applied Developmental Science, 8, 75–90.

Zeldin, S., Camino, L., Calvert, M., & Ivey, D. (2002). Youth-adult partnerships and positive youth development: Some lessons learned from research and practice in Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Extension.

Zeldin, S., Christens, B. D., & Powers, J. L. (2013). The psychology and practice of youth-adult partnership: Bridging generations for youth development and community change. American Journal of Community Psychology, 51, 385–397.

Other Resources on this Topic


Feature Articles

Youth Briefs

How Individualized Education Program (IEP) Transition Planning Makes a Difference for Youth with Disabilities

Youth who receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and especially young adults of transition age, should be involved in planning for life after high school as early as possible and no later than age 16. Transition services should stem from the individual youth’s needs and strengths, ensuring that planning takes into account his or her interests, preferences, and desires for the future.

Youth Transitioning to Adulthood: How Holding Early Leadership Positions Can Make a Difference

Research links early leadership with increased self-efficacy and suggests that leadership can help youth to develop decision making and interpersonal skills that support successes in the workforce and adulthood. In addition, young leaders tend to be more involved in their communities, and have lower dropout rates than their peers. Youth leaders also show considerable benefits for their communities, providing valuable insight into the needs and interests of young people

How Trained Service Professionals and Self-Advocacy Makes a Difference for Youth with Mental Health, Substance Abuse, or Co-occurring Issues

Statistics reflecting the number of youth suffering from mental health, substance abuse, and co-occurring disorders highlight the necessity for schools, families, support staff, and communities to work together to develop targeted, coordinated, and comprehensive transition plans for young people with a history of mental health needs and/or substance abuse.

Young Adults Formerly in Foster Care: Challenges and Solutions

Nearly 30,000 youth aged out of foster care in Fiscal Year 2009, which represents nine percent of the young people involved in the foster care system that year. This transition can be challenging for youth, especially youth who have grown up in the child welfare system.

Coordinating Systems to Support Transition Age Youth with Mental Health Needs

Research has demonstrated that as many as one in five children/youth have a diagnosable mental health disorder. Read about how coordination between public service agencies can improve treatment for these youth.

Civic Engagement Strategies for Transition Age Youth

Civic engagement has the potential to empower young adults, increase their self-determination, and give them the skills and self-confidence they need to enter the workforce. Read about one youth’s experience in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC).